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Malignant Tumors during the First 2 Decades of Life in the Offspring of Atomic Bomb Survivors
Pages 389-400

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From page 389...
... The rationale for the study stemmed from the evidence that a significant proportion of such childhood tumors as retinoblastoma and Wilms tumor arise on the basis of a mutant gene inherited from one parent plus a second somatic cell mutation involving the allele of this gene. Gonadal radiation doses were calculated by the recently established DS86 system, supplemented by an ad hoc system for those children for one or both of whose parents a DS86 dose could not be computed but for whom an ad hoc dose could be developed on the basis of the available information.
From page 390...
... in recent years a variety of approaches has led to the recognition of a second class of genes concerned with carcinogenesis, generically termed proto-oncogenes, which as a result of a mutational event in a somatic cell become ehe basis for a clonally derived malignancy. A related phenomenon is the implication of precise chromosomal regions, including fragile sites, in the chromosomal breakpoint associated with various clonally derived leukemias, lymphomas, and other malignancies.
From page 391...
... all additional children born to proximally exposed parents between 1959 and 1984 and, again, (b) suitably matched controls.
From page 392...
... The possibility of cancer occurring in the living members of these nuclear families was also explored through inquiries to the tumor registries of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Japanese National Retinoblastoma Registry, and the Japanese Childhood Malignancy Registry, with no additional reports of malignancies being encountered. Thus all the children in this series who have the above-enumerated malignancies can be considered to result either from mutation in the germ line of the preceding generation plus a somatic cell mutation or from a double somatic cell mutation in their generation.
From page 393...
... , the conjoint parental gonad exposure for the cities combined averaged 0.002 Gy of neutron radiation and 0.358 Gy of gamma radiation, or 0.405 Sv; but there was marked skewing of the dose curve to the right. There were a total of 83 diagnoses of malignant tumors in the children.
From page 394...
... b Strong evidence for heritability. strongly to the retinoblastoma-Wilms tumor model are indicated by a superscript "b" and are termed "heritable"; a superscript "a" indicates those for which the evidence is less convincing.
From page 395...
... . Ire this analysis, although the number of children born to parents receiving no increased radiation remained almost unchanged, the extended set includes 4,265 additional children whose parents received significant amounts of radiation, an increase of 15.9% in the data base.
From page 396...
... Discussion This failure to demonstrate a statistically significant increase in malignant tumors prior to age 20 years in children born to the survivors of the atomic bombings confirms an earlier, less detailed report by Schull et al. (1982>, as well as a still earlier report, restricted to leukemia, by Ishimaru et al.
From page 397...
... than do their nonfamilial counterparts. Nevertheless, although many of the children in the Mulvihill series were still quite young at the time of the reports, so that the ultimate estimate of cancer incidence below the age of 20 years will undoubtedly be greater, these empirical data suggest that a transmissible germinal mutation is involved in a fraction of the childhood tumors that is much smaller than the figures mentioned above for retinoblastoma and Wilms tumor.
From page 398...
... Kensei Minoda, representing the Japanese National Retinoblastoma Registry, and of Dr. Nobaru Kobayashi, representing the Japanese Childhood Malignancy Registry, in the family studies.
From page 399...
... Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 68:820-823 (1986) Genetics of human cancer.
From page 400...
... The frequency of malignant tumors during the first two decades of life in the offspring (F~) of atomic bomb survivors.


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