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5 Approaches to Physical Education in Schools
Pages 197-258

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From page 197...
... instruction by certified physical education teachers, (2) a minimum of 150 minutes per week (30 minutes per day)
From page 198...
... reported cutting significant time from physical education and recess to increase time spent in reading and mathematics since passage of the No Child Left Behind Act. • Standardized national-level data on the provision of and partici pation, performance, and extent of engagement in vigorous- or m ­ oderate-intensity physical activity are insufficient to allow assess ment of the current status and trends in physical education in the United States.
From page 199...
... During the past 15 years, physical education has once again evolved to connect body movement to its consequences (e.g., physical activity and health) , teaching children the science of healthful living and skills needed for an active lifestyle (NASPE, 2004)
From page 200...
... Various curriculum models are used in instruction, including movement education, sport education, and fitness education. In terms of engagement in physical activity, two perspectives are apparent.
From page 201...
... . Sport Education One prevalent physical education model is the sport education curriculum designed by Daryl Siedentop (Siedentop, 1994; Siedentop et al., 2011)
From page 202...
... The model's merits in developing motor skills, fitness, and desired physical activity behavior have yet to be determined in studies with more rigorous research designs. Fitness Education Instead of focusing exclusively on having children move constantly to log activity time, a new curricular approach emphasizes teaching them the science behind why they need to be physically active in their lives.
From page 203...
... . Emergence of Active Gaming in Fitness Education Today, active gaming and cell phone/computer applications are a part of physical activity for both youth and adults.
From page 204...
... • Self-monitor physical activity and adhere to a physical activity plan. Health-related fitness: Achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of health-related fitness.
From page 205...
... • Value physical activity. • Advocacy.
From page 206...
... , studying the effects of active gaming among 10-year-old children in Hong Kong, found the children to be significantly more physically active while playing interactive games compared with screen-based games. Exergaming appears to increase acute physical activity among users and is being used in school settings because it is appealing to students.
From page 207...
... found that among school-age children the use of active gaming added to postural stability, an important component of motor skills development. From the research cited above, as well as ongoing research being conducted by the Health Games Research Project funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, active gaming is promising as a means of providing young children an opportunity to become more physically active and helping them meet the recommended 60 or more minutes of vigorous- or moderateintensity physical activity per day.
From page 208...
... With respect to content, in both elementary and secondary schools, physical activity is an assumed rather than an intended outcome except in the fitness education model. The goals of skill development and knowledge growth in physical education presumably are accomplished through participation in vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity.
From page 209...
... , motor skills competency, and knowledge. However, in-class engagement in physical activity was best predicted by aerobic fitness and motor skills competence, suggesting that knowledge and skills should not be overlooked in a balanced physical education curriculum intended to promote lifelong physical activity.
From page 210...
... . These data, while several years old, show that most learning assessments in physical education fail to target relevant learning objectives such as knowledge, skills, and physical activity behavior.
From page 211...
... report that, in general, online physical education focuses more on cognitive knowledge than physical skill or physical activity, many online courses fail to meet national standards for learning and physical activity
From page 212...
... Accompanying the assessment, as part of a comprehensive program, are education and training through professional development, awards, and recognition. SOURCE: Presidential Youth Fitness Program, 2013.
From page 213...
... This document satisfies that requirement. Florida law defines "physical education" to mean: "the development or maintenance of skills related to strength, agil ity, flexibility, movement, and stamina, including dance; the devel opment of knowledge and skills regarding teamwork and fair play; the development of knowledge and skills regarding nutrition and physical fitness as part of a healthy lifestyle; and the development of positive attitudes regarding sound nutrition and physical activity as a component of personal well-being.
From page 214...
... Through a survey involving 45 online high school physical education teachers, the authors found that almost three-fourths of the courses they taught failed to meet the national guideline for secondary schools of 225 minutes of physical education per week. Most of the courses required physical activity 3 days per week, while six courses required no physical activity.
From page 215...
... Further, there is no evidence of a compensatory effect such that children having been active during physical education elect not to participate in additional physical activity on that day. Accordingly, quality physical education contributes to a child's daily accumulation of physical activity and is of particular importance for children who are overweight or who lack access to these opportunities in the home environment (NASPE, 2012)
From page 216...
... The plan is intended to create a national culture that supports physically active lifestyles so that its vision that "one day, all Americans will be physically active and they will live, work, and play in environments that facilitate regular physical activity" can be realized. To accomplish this ultimate goal, the plan calls for improvement in the quantity and quality of physical education for students from prekindergarten through 12th grade through significant policy initiatives at the federal and state levels that guide and fund physical education and other physical activity programs.
From page 217...
... . The five CSPAP components, considered vital for developing a physically educated and physically active child, are physical education, physical activity during school, physical activity before and after school, staff involvement, and family and community involvement (AAHPERD, 2012)
From page 218...
... In 56 percent of elementary schools that had implemented a CSPAP, physical activity was encouraged between lessons/classes; in 44 percent it was integrated into academic lessons; and in 43 percent the school day started with physical activity programs. The percentage of schools that offered intramural sports clubs to at least 25 percent of students declined from 62 percent of middle schools to
From page 219...
... Sixty-five percent of high schools had "cut" policies, which could limit the enrollment of students in interscholastic sports. CHARACTERISTICS OF QUALITY PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS As noted, a high-quality physical education program can help youth meet the guideline of at least 60 minutes of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity per day.
From page 220...
... They should be prepared through proper training and included in stakeholder conversations. A well-trained physical activity workforce shares a common commitment and principles that promote physical activity among children.
From page 221...
... The teachers in ineffective programs had misconceptions about student performance and, in general, lower expectations of student performance and behavior. Examples of Evidence-Based Physical Education Curricular Programs Two large-scale intervention studies -- SPARK and CATCH -- are discussed in this section as examples of how programs can be structured to increase vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity in physical education classes.
From page 222...
... The aim of SPARK, a research-based curriculum, is to improve the health, fitness, and physical activity levels of youth by creating, implementing, and evaluating programs that promote lifelong wellness. Each SPARK program "fosters environmental and behavioral change by providing a coordinated package of highly active curriculum, on-site teacher ­raining, t extensive follow-up support, and content-matched equipment focused on the development of healthy lifestyles, motor skills and movement knowledge, and social and personal skills" (SPARK, 2013)
From page 223...
... Research supports the use of SPARK as a platform for improving the quality of physical activity instruction in schools. The SPARK curriculum has demonstrated the ability to improve student activity levels, increase the number of minutes of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity for students, and provide sustainable and positive change in a school district (Myers-Schieffer and Thomas, 2012)
From page 224...
... . CATCH significantly increases the physical activity levels of students during physical education class and provides a wide range of learning experiences for students of all abilities.
From page 225...
... Certified Physical Education Specialists as the Main Teaching Force If standards are the gauge for quality, teachers make the difference in a particular school in terms of the extent to which students can achieve the standards. Research has made clear that certified physical education specialists can provide more and longer opportunities for students to meet physical activity guidelines compared with classroom teachers trained to teach physical education (McKenzie et al., 2001)
From page 226...
... Additionally, as the catalyst for a healthy school environment, the physical education specialist can assist in the design and delivery of intramural programs provided before and after school, as well as serve as a community outreach specialist for onsite activity partnerships. For physical education specialists interested in a more formal role as a physical activity leader at their school, NASPE has developed a director of physical activity certification program.
From page 227...
... , current teacher candidates believe that helping K-12 students become physically active and fit is the first priority of physical education, followed by helping them actualize their own goals, develop motor skills, and become responsible. These data appear to suggest that physical education teacher education programs are beginning to turn from a traditionally sports- and skills-centered model to a more comprehensive, physical activity– and health-centered model.
From page 228...
... 2.  Skill-based and fitness-based competence: Physical education teacher candidates are physically educated individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary to demonstrate competent move ment performance and health-enhancing fitness as delineated in the NASPE K-12 standards.
From page 229...
... Because of a lack of national tracking data on physical education graduates, the extent to which the teacher educator shortage has impacted and will impact the need to supply quality physical education teachers to the nation is unclear. Professional Development In all educational settings, professional development for teachers and administrators is a continuous process of acquiring new knowledge and skills that relate to an educator's profession or academic subject area, job responsibilities, or work environment.
From page 230...
... Recommendations for highquality professional development tend to emphasize the importance of Standards, Curricula, Accountability, Assessments Professional Teacher Knowledge Classroom Student Development and Skills Teaching Achievement FIGURE 5-1  Logic model of the impact of professional development on student achievement. Figure 5-1.eps
From page 231...
... Significant increases in students' physical activity levels were found, but no significant changes in BMI. Looking at the effect of professional development on changes in behavior among physical education teachers, Martin and colleagues (2008)
From page 232...
... • Professional learning standards provide a foundation on which to design professional learning experiences at the district or school level that will assist educators in acquiring the necessary knowledge, skills, and tools. As a recognized means of providing physical education teachers with the tools necessary to enhance student achievement, quality professional development should be provided on a regular basis with follow-up support, along with a method for determining its effectiveness in meeting both curricular and pedagogical standards.
From page 233...
... Outcomes: Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students aligns its outcomes with educator perfor mance and student curriculum standards. SOURCE: Learning Forward, 2012.
From page 234...
... Some obstacles to the implementation of quality physical activity are listed in Box 5-11. According to Title IX of the No Child Left Behind Act (Part A Sec 9101-11)
From page 235...
... Using the NASBE database, the committee performed an overall analysis of policies on physical education and physical activity of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The analysis revealed that 45 states (88 percent)
From page 236...
... Although school districts are required to include goals for physical activity in their local school wellness policies, they are not required to address physical education specifically.
From page 237...
... As discussed earlier, however, no evidence suggests that physical education and physical activity have a negative effect on student achievement
From page 238...
... have been associated with physical education and physical activity (see Chapter 4)
From page 239...
... . Districts that reported an increase in instructional time for elementary school English language arts spent an average of 378 minutes per week on this subject before No Child Left Behind was enacted.
From page 240...
... No evidence currently exists showing that students receive any portion of the recommended 60 minutes or more of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity through substituted activities sanctioned by their schools. BARRIERS TO QUALITY PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SOLUTIONS Barriers other than the policies detailed above hinder efforts to improve and maintain high-quality physical education.
From page 241...
... Approaches to Physical Education in Schools 241 TABLE 5-4  Barriers to the Delivery of Physical Education and Physical Activity Programs to Primary and Secondary School Students Barrier Primary Schools Secondary Schools Institutional Access to and lack of facilitiesa,h Access to and lack of facilitiesf Lack of timea,h Lack of timeb Crowded curriculumh Restricted curriculumb Fundinga,h Fundingf Access to and lack of equipmenta Ethos of PA for life within the Support from other staffa schoolb Support from administrationa,h Socioeconomic status of schoolc Access to professional developmenth Time tablingf PE/sport not priorities in schoola,e Large class sizesa,h Budget constraintsh Insufficient infrastructuree Other teaching prioritiesa,e Quality of facilitiesa Level of professional developmenth School executive attitudes toward PEa Insufficient number of PE staffa,e Lack of performance measures for PEe Teacher-Related Lack of training and knowledged Colleagues undervaluing Difficulty of providing safely planned activitiesb and structured lessonsd Ethos of performance/elitism of Gender stereotyping of activitiesd PE department or school as Poor planningd a wholeb Perceptions of the value of PEd High level of accountability for other subjectse Confidence in teaching PEg,h,l Interest in/enthusiasm for PEh Personal school experiences in PEg,h Attitudes toward PEe Expertise/qualificationsg,h,l Student-Related Lack of student engagementi Student engagementf Expressed dislike for activityi Lure of sedentary behaviorb Lack of intrinsic and extrinsic Low fitness levels, therefore motivationi potentially lower abilityb Intrapersonal barriersk Socioeconomic status of studentc Levels of encouragement and motivationc Peer supportc,j Peer pressurej Intrapersonal barriersk Lack of motivation/lazinessk NOTES: PA = physical activity; PE = physical education; sport = sport education. SOURCES: aBarroso et al., 2005; bBoyle et al., 2008; cDagkas and Stathi, 2007; dDeCorby et al., 2005; eDwyer et al., 2003; fDwyer et al., 2006; gMorgan and Bourke, 2005; hMorgan and Hansen, 2008; iMowling et al., 2004; jSalvy et al., 2009; kSherar et al., 2009; lXiang et al., 2002.
From page 242...
... Jenkinson and Benson (2010) also presented teachers with a list of barriers to student participation in physical education and physical activity in three categories: institutional, teacher-related, and student-related.
From page 243...
... Rankinga 5 4 3 2 1 Top 5 Categoryb Crowded curriculum 1 21 6 6 5 5 59 I Lack of facilities 2 10 7 4 2 4 37 I Difficulty engaging students 3 9 10 11 11 8 67 T Students have low level of interest in PEc and PAd 4 7 11 5 5 5 45 S Peer pressure 5 5 7 9 13 11 62 S PEc/sporte not priorities in the school 5 5 6 5 3 9 38 I Focus on too many traditional sports 6 4 1 4 5 1 21 I Past negative experiences with PEc 7 3 6 6 6 5 37 S Large class sizes 8 2 6 7 5 2 30 I The school environment does not encourage PAd 9 2 0 0 0 3 6 I Cost of subject 10 1 5 8 5 3 30 I Staff use outdated teaching methods 11 1 2 2 2 2 12 T PEc/sporte staff provide limited activity time 12 1 2 1 1 2 10 T Semesterisation of units 13 1 1 0 1 3 8 I Outdated curriculum 14 1 0 0 1 2 5 I Lack of equipment 15 0 3 4 5 5 23 I NOTE: aRanking = based on most frequently ranked as number 1 barrier; = institutional barrier, T = teacher-related barrier, S = student-related bI barrier; cPE = physical education; dPA = physical activity; eSport = sport education. SOURCE: Jenkinson and Benson, 2010.
From page 244...
... . Solutions for Overcoming the Barriers For many adolescents who have few opportunities to be active outside of the school day, quality physical education becomes the only option for physical activity.
From page 245...
... These changes include securing grant funds with which to implement high-tech physical education wellness centers, staff commitment to professional development, administrative support, physical education being made a priority, community support, use of certified physical education teachers, and district support. Identifying the need to reform physical education guided by evidence-based findings, the report concludes that (1)
From page 246...
... External factors further strengthened programs, including having school district support, having a physical education coordinator, and using state standards to provide accountability. Additional ways to overcome the barriers to quality physical education include scheduling time for physical education, ensuring reasonable class size, providing nontraditional physical education activities, making classes more active and fun for all students, and acknowledging the importance of role modeling and personal investment and involvement in participation in physical activity among staff.
From page 247...
... . The report Active Education: Physical Education, Physical Activity and Academic Performance by Active Living Research (Trost, 2009)
From page 248...
... Such models provide the only opportunity for all school-age children to access health-enhancing physical activities. Curriculum models for physical education programs include movement education, which emphasizes the importance of fundamental motor skills competence as a prerequisite for engagement in physical activity throughout the life span; sport education, which emphasizes helping students become skillful players in lifetime sports of their choosing; and fitness education, which imparts physical fitness concepts to students, including the benefits and scientific principles of exercise, with the goal of developing and maintaining individual fitness and positive lifestyle change.
From page 249...
... As the largest institution where children spend more than half of their waking hours on school days, schools can play a pivotal role in increasing students' physical activity levels by providing access for all to quality physical education, along with physical activities throughout the school environment, the subject of Chapter 7. references AAHPERD (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance)
From page 250...
... 2010. The association between school based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance.
From page 251...
... 2010. The effects of e ­xergaming on physical activity among inactive children in a physical education classroom.
From page 252...
... 2010. Barriers to providing physical education and physical activity in Victorian state secondary schools.
From page 253...
... 2013. A systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in school physical education lessons.
From page 254...
... 2010. National Physical Activity Plan.
From page 255...
... 2009. Effect of peers and friends on youth physical activity and motivation to be physically active.
From page 256...
... 2004. Physical activity and physical fitness in children schooled at home and children attending public schools.
From page 257...
... New Zealand: AUT University, Center for Physical Activity and Nutrition (CPAN)


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