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2 Grid Infrastructure
Pages 4-9

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From page 4...
... Such careful balance naturally introduces four vulnerabilities: • Large, centralized power generation sources are often highlighted as potential targets for terrorists since the loss of a large generator would reduce electrical capacity by hundreds of gigawatts. However, as Dr.
From page 5...
... Bienstock hopes to develop real-time control algorithms that can analyze a cascading blackout and, while perhaps not mitigating it fully, at least identify the measures to make it less disruptive. Using publicly available data for the Eastern Interconnect, he was able to show how one such control algorithm, in conjunction with fast-acting controls, could rapidly stabilize the blackout, reducing the number of line outages from almost 6,000 to just 11 for a particular initial outage.
From page 6...
... Kassakian both noted that an EMP weapon, which could be as small as a briefcase, could be used to attack the control systems of the grid at the same time as an attack on the physical infrastructure, thus significantly compounding the effect of the physical attack by disabling some of the inherent balancing mechanisms in the grid. A cyberattack combined with a physical attack on the infrastructure may have a similarly crippling effect, as is discussed in Chapter 3.
From page 7...
... While the components of a substation are relatively easily replaced, the difficulty of and lead time necessary for replacing a transformer is a hindrance that can slow down the mitigation response. Anjan Bose, Washington State University, currently on leave and serving on the Department of Energy's Grid Tech Team, did mention that the recent rebirth of transformer manufacturing in the United States, as described by Mr.
From page 8...
... While the transport of the transformer requires state permitting in advance, the convoy design enables rapid installation by transferring its oil, cooling equipment, and other ancillary equipment (control cabinets, bushings, etc.) along with the transformer.
From page 9...
... Bienstock, who illustrated the effectiveness of real-time control algorithms in the case of multiple line failures. In his example, such algorithms limited the cascading losses to 11 outaged lines and 25.5 percent yield as compared to the case without such controls (39.3 percent lost yield and 5,959 outaged lines)

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