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Pages 167-172

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From page 167...
... Blot see Southern blot 167
From page 168...
... a collection of DNA typing profiles of selected or randomly chosen individuals DNA polymerase an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of double-stranded DNA DNA probe a short segment of single-stranded DNA labeled with a radioactive or chemical tag that is used to detect the presence of a particular DNA sequence through hybridization to its complementary sequence Electrophoresis a technique in which different molecules are separated by their rate of movement in an electric field Enzyme a protein that is capable of speeding up a specific chemical reaction but which itself is not changed or consumed in the process; a biological catalyst Ethidium bromide an organic molecule that binds to DNA and fluoresces under ultraviolet light and is used to identify DNA G single-letter designation of the purine base guanine; also used in diagrams to represent a nucleotide containing guanine Gamete a haploid reproductive cell
From page 169...
... Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium the condition, for a particular genetic locus and a particular population, with the following properties: allele frequencies at the locus are constant in the population over time and there is no statistical correlation between the two alleles possessed by individuals in the population; such a condition is approached in large randomly mating populations in the absence of selection, migration, and mutation Heredity the transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring Heterozygote a diploid organism that carries different alleles at one or more genetic loci on its homologous chromosomes Heterozygous having different alleles at a particular locus; for most forensic DNA probes, the autoradiogram displays two bands if the person is heterozygous at the locus HLA see human leukocyte antigen Homology similarity between two structures or functions indicative of a common evolutionary origin Homozygote a diploid organism that carries identical alleles at one or more genetic loci on its homologous chromosomes Homozygous having the same allele at a particular locus; for most forensic DNA probes, the autoradiogram displays a single band if the person is homozygous at the locus Human leukocyte antigen (HLA J protein-sugar structures on the surface of most cells, except blood cells, that differ among individuals and are
From page 170...
... to which DNAis transferred during the Southern blotting procedure Molecular-weight size marker DNA fragments of known size, from which the size~of an unknown DNA sample can be determined Monomorphic probe a probe that detects the same allele and hence the same pattern in everyone Multilocus probe a DNA probe that detects genetic variation at multiple sites; an autoradiogram of a multilocus probe yields a complex, stripelike pattern of 30 or more bands per individual Mutagen a physical agent (e.g., x rays) or chemical agent that induces changes in DNA Nucleic acid a nucleotide polymer of which major types are DNA and RNA Nucleotide a unit of nucleic acid composed of phosphate, a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)
From page 171...
... Quality assurance a program conducted by a laboratory to ensure accuracy and reliability of tests performed Quality control internal activities or activities according to externally es tablished standards used to monitor the quality of DNA typing to meet and satisfy specified criteria Recombinant DNA fragments of DNA~from two different species, such as a bacterium and a mammal, spliced into a single molecule Replication the synthesis of new DNA from existing DNA Restriction endonuclease, restriction enzyme an enzyme that cleaves DNA molecules at particular base sequences Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) variation r ~ ~ T ~ in the length of 1)
From page 172...
... 172 DNA TECHNOLOGY IN FORENSIC SCIENCE Serology the discipline concerned with the immunologic study of body fluids Serum the liquid that separates from blood after coagulation Sex chromosomes (x and y chromosomesJ chromosomes that are different In the two sexes and that are involved in sex determination Sex-linked characteristic a genetic characteristic, such as color blindness, that is determined by a gene on a sex chromosome and shows a different pattern of inheritance in males and females; X-linked is a more specific term Single-locus probe a DNA probe that detects genetic variation at only one site in the genome; an autoradiogram that uses one single-locus probe usually displays one band in homozygotes and two bands in heterozygotes Somatic cells the differentiated cells that make up the body tissues of multicellular plants and animals Southern blot the nylon membrane to which DNA adheres after the process of Southern blotting Southern blotting the technique for transferring DNA fragments that have been separated by electrophoresis from the gel to a nylon membrane Standards criteria established for quality control and quality assurance; established or known test reagents, such as molecular-weight standards T single-letter designation of the pyrimidine base thymine; also used in diagrams to represent a nucleotide containing thymine Tandem repeats multiple copies of an identical DNA sequence arranged in direct succession in a particular region of a chromosome Taq polymerase a DNA polymerase used to form double-stranded DNA from nucleotides and a single-stranded DNA template in the PCR technique Thymine a pyrimidine base; one of the four nitrogen-containing molecules present in nucleic acids DNA and RNA; designated by the letter T Uracil a pyrimidine in RNA Variable number of Tandem repeats (VNTR) repeating units of a DNA sequence for which the number varies between individuals VNTR variable number of tandem repeats Zygote diploid cell that results from the fusion of male and female gametes

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