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Rechargeable Batteries
Pages 10-13

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From page 10...
... Given a choice, people will demand the freedom to communicate wherever they are, unfettered by the infamous copper wire," he explained.16 The main challenge lay in developing a suitable energy source: To be truly portable, a mobile phone would need a small, light, and quickly rechargeable battery. The 1973 prototype cell phone contained a large and heavy battery that took 10 hours to charge and provided just 35 minutes of talk time.
From page 11...
... The exploitation of lithium for use in batteries can be traced directly back to a materials discovery, the so-called "lithium intercalation compound," which accommodates lithium atoms into its structure without tightly binding them so that they can be released during the charging process.17 This scientific discovery was followed by more discoveries, such as the high-cellvoltage cathode material LiCoO2, developed by John Goodenough,18 which is still one of the most common cathode materials in portable consumer electronics today. 11 Harvesting the Fruits of Inquiry
From page 12...
... are combined in such a way that the atoms form a layered structure in which the lithium is loosely bound and therefore is easily available to participate in the chemical reactions and transportation that make the battery work. The architecture of the material is designed so that the material's structure remains unaffected as the lithium atoms engage in the repetitive process of releasing electrons, traveling out of the material as ions and being replaced by lithium atoms from the electrolyte, allowing the process to be repeated many times.
From page 13...
... densities extends well beyond personal electronic devices. To take advantage of renewable solar or wind energy, we need to store electricity collected when the sun shines or the wind blows, for use when night falls or the wind calms.

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