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Appendix D: Glossary
Pages 293-306

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From page 293...
... as an aerosol. African swine fever: A highly contagious tick-borne hemorrhagic disease of pigs, warthogs, European wild boar, and American wild pigs.
From page 294...
... Any of a group of viruses that are transmitted to man and animals by mosquitoes, ticks, and sand flies; they include such agents as yellow fever and eastern, western, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses. Arthropod:  As used in this report, refers to insects and ticks, many of which are medically important as vectors of infectious diseases.
From page 295...
... :  Is applicable to clinical, diagnostic, teaching, research, or production facilities where work is performed with indigenous or exotic agents that may cause serious or potentially lethal disease through the inhalation route of exposure. Laboratory personnel must receive specific training in handling pathogenic and potentially lethal agents, and must be supervised by scientists competent in handling infectious agents and associated procedures.
From page 296...
... Cloaca:  The common chamber into which the intestinal, urinary, and generative canals discharge especially in monotreme mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and elasmobranch fishes; the terminal part of the embryonic hindgut of a mammal before it divides into rectum, bladder, and genital precursors; a passage in a bone leading to a cavity containing a sequestrum. Colony collapse disorder:  A pathological condition affecting a large number of honeybee colonies, in which various stresses may lead to the abrupt disappearance of worker bees from the hive, leaving only the queen and newly hatched bees behind and thus causing the colony to stop functioning.
From page 297...
... Dual-use research of concern: In the life sciences, research that, based on current understanding, can be reasonably anticipated to provide knowledge, information, products, or technologies that could be directly misapplied to pose a significant threat with broad potential consequences to public health and safety, agricultural crops and other plants, animals, the environment, materiel, or national security.
From page 298...
... Some recent examples of agents responsible for emerging infections include human immunodeficiency virus, Ebola virus, multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and influenza A (H1N1)
From page 299...
... Global warming:  The gradual increase, observed or projected, in global surface temperature, as one of the consequences of radiative forcing caused by anthropogenic emissions. Globalization:  The increased interconnectedness and interdependence of peoples and countries, is generally understood to include two interrelated elements: the opening of borders to increasingly fast flows of goods, services, finance, people, and ideas across international borders; and the changes in institutional and policy regimes at the international and national levels that facilitate or promote such flows.
From page 300...
... Influenza: An acute highly contagious virus disease that is caused by various strains of orthomyxoviruses belonging to three major types now considered as three separate genera and that is characterized by sudden onset, fever, prostration, severe aches and pains, and progressive inflammation of the respiratory mucous membrane -- often used with the letter A, B, or C to denote disease caused by a virus of a specific one of the three genera; any human respiratory infection of undetermined cause -- not used technically; any of numerous febrile usually virus diseases of domestic animals (as shipping fever of horses and swine influenza) marked by respiratory symptoms, inflammation of mucous membranes, and often systemic involvement.
From page 301...
... Building on the unique experience of WHO in global disease surveillance, alert, and response, the IHR defines the rights and obligations of countries to report public health events, and establishes a number of procedures that WHO must follow in its work to uphold global public health security. Interstitial pneumonia:  Any of several chronic lung diseases of unknown etiology that affect interstitial tissues of the lung without filling of the alveolae and that may follow damage to the alveolar walls or involve interstitial histological changes.
From page 302...
... Nucleoprotein:  Any of a group of substances found in the nuclei of all living cells and in viruses and composed of a protein and a nucleic acid. One Health: The collaborative effort of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally, and globally to attain optimal health for people, animals, and our environment.
From page 303...
... Public health:  The art and science of dealing with the protection and improvement of community health by organized community effort and including preventive medicine and sanitary and social health. Public health emergency of international concern: An extraordinary event that is determined (1)
From page 304...
... Mechanical: This includes simple mechanical carriage by a crawling or flying insect through soiling of its feet or proboscis or by passage of organisms through its gastrointestinal tract. This does not require multiplication or development of the organism.
From page 305...
... West Nile virus:  A flavivirus (genus Flavivirus) that causes an illness marked by fever, headache, muscle ache, skin rash, and sometimes encephalitis or meningitis, that is spread chiefly by mosquitoes and that is closely related to the viruses causing Japanese B encephalitis and Saint Louis encephalitis.


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