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5 FOOD AND WATER CONSUMPTION
Pages 159-202

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From page 159...
... The committee then describes the age-related differences in food consumption patterns demonstrated by survey data and discusses food consumption estimates. The committee also notes various factors and limitations that must be considered in determining the basis for estimating exposure to pesticide residues in food and assessing the risk to infants and children.
From page 160...
... For the reasons given later in this chapter, the 1977-1978 survey served as the major source of consumption data used by the committee in the present study. The USDA has conducted a planned series of surveys since 1985 solely concerned with individual food intake (USDA, 1985, 1986a,b, 1987a,b,c, 1988~.
From page 161...
... Dietary intake studies have been conducted by Gerber Products Company and Ross Laboratories to evaluate intake for these populations, and those dietary studies were used by the committee. SURVEY METHODOLOGY Three basic types of methods are used to gather data in food consumption surveys (Burk and Pao, 1976; Dwyer,1988~: retrospective, prospective, and a combination of retrospective and prospective.
From page 162...
... Food Frequency Questionnaires In its simplest form, the food frequency questionnaire consists of a checklist of foods or food groups and a set of categories indicating daily, weekly, or monthly frequency of food consumption during a specified period weeks, months, or a year. The checklists may contain as few as 20 items or more than 100.
From page 163...
... Prospective Methods Food Records or Diaries These usually self-administered reports of current food intake can cover periods ranging from 1 day to as long as 1 year (Basiotis et al., 1987~. Subjects or their surrogates, e.g., parents, record the portions of all foods and beverages ingested immediately after each eating occasion.
From page 164...
... Methods Used In USDA Surveys Although the USDA has sought similar information in its various dietary intake surveys, it has changed the methods used in an attempt to obtain better measures of average intake. The agency has advanced from a 1-day recall only in spring (1965-1966 Household Food Consumption Survey)
From page 165...
... 547 1986 All incomes Children509 219 Women1,451 751 1986 Low incomes Children762 307 Women1,320 595 a The numbers in these columns are not additive since they represent different study groups. Men were sampled for only 1 day.
From page 166...
... (1991) adjusted intake for sociodemographic factors for the 19871988 NFCS and found a significant difference between the resulting mean intake as compared with mean intake calculated without such weighting.
From page 167...
... (1991) considered characterizing usual daily intake distributions as opposed to mean daily intake.
From page 168...
... Two primary objectives of food consumption surveys are to assess the mean intake of a group of individuals or the mean intake of a particular individual. Because food consumption varies markedly both within individuals and between individuals (Beaton et al., 1979; Beaton et al., 1983; Todd et al., 1983)
From page 169...
... Despite these substantive limitations, the NFCS has provided the only comprehensive data currently available for comparisons of food consumption by all age classes in our population, which is the primary reason the committee chose the 1977-1978 NFCS as the basis for this report. Because the EPA also relies on the same food intake data, the committee's-findings can easily be compared with the risks estimated by that agency.
From page 170...
... To gain a clearer view of the consumption patterns of infants, the committee examined the results of an Infant Nutrition Survey conducted by the Gerber Products Company in 1986. This was one in a series of surveys conducted by Gerber since 1969 to monitor infant feeding practices, nutrient intake, and nutrition contribution and changes (Purvis, 1973; Johnson et al., 1981; Purvis and Bartholmey, 1988~.
From page 171...
... 171 On ._ Ad i_ AD oo a CJ CJ)
From page 172...
... WATER INTADI The National Cancer Institute (NCI) conducted an extensive analysis of the 1977-1978 NFCS data to develop more accurate estimates of water intake (Ershow and Cantor, 1989~.
From page 173...
... The investigators acknowledged that their estimates of total water intake by nursing infants were low. In the absence of data on human milk consumption, they derived their estimates from other water sources.
From page 174...
... _ \ 33.2% \ a\\\\\\'\ >65 Years 28.1% O Drinking Water F~ Coffee, Tea, end Coffee Substitutes 1~ uany~ooa Baby Formula rim Milk and Milk Drinks ~ Carbonated Beverages O Fruit Juices, Tomato Juice, and Noncarbonated Drinks ~ Other Foods and Beverages
From page 175...
... ~ 11.7% -~ , C /6.9% 38~ >65 Years Coffee, Tea, end Coffee Substitutes ~ Grains DI Drinking Water Fruit Juices, Tomato Juice, and Noncarbonated Drinks Em Milk and Milk Drinks ~ Other Foods and Beverages Milk and Milk Drinks ~ Baby Formula 4.3% 4.0% FIGURE 5-2 Dietary sources of total water and tapwater by age, expressed as percentages.
From page 177...
... Intake of both tapwater and total water was highest in the summer in all regions for all age groups. Water consumption data reported by Gerber showed a wide variation among the various age groups.
From page 178...
... Therefore, to assess pesticide exposures and to compare those exposures with established reference doses, it is necessary to break down the foods consumed into rater agricultural commodities (RACs~the components used by the regulatory agencies. For example, pizza is broken down into wheat flour, water, yeast, tomato paste, tomato sauce, cheese, and other ingredients and expressed in grams in order to match the form in which pesticide tolerances are reported in the Code of Federal Regulations (1986a,b)
From page 179...
... <0.50.5-0.9 1-3 4-6 7-10 11~1415-192~44 45-64 65~74 75+ Age (Yr) FIGURE 5-5 Mean daily intake of total water by age group and sex.
From page 180...
... The result is a clear picture of the most commonly consumed foods in the diets of infants and children and how these differ from those consumed most frequently by adults, as discussed in the next section. Because EPA presented intake data for milk as RACs (that is, as the dry constituents such as fat and nonfat milk solids and lactose)
From page 181...
... The numbers in these tables were derived from EPA intake data based on milligrams per kilogram of body weight and are presented as RACs consistent with regulatory practice. Water intake was not considered, except for the water component of milk products, as noted above.
From page 182...
... 27. In the process of reviewing the data and developing the comparisons, the committee noted variances in dietary patterns across age categories, within age categories, within individuals, and over time.
From page 183...
... 183 in in ~4 ˘ Go ._ a, ._ .
From page 184...
... 184 ._ cn Do ˘ o to ˘ o o o ._ cn ._ to 8 AD U)
From page 185...
... 185 1 ~ ~ ~ o 0 oo ~ ~ 0 0 0 US 1 Can ~ ~ ~ 1_ ~ 1 =~ - 1 1 1 ~Lo Can Cry ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ IOED ~ ~ ~ ~ Dot ~ ~1 ~ 0 1 .
From page 186...
... 186 D o 11 ~ I C ~ s1 o oo ~ m^ ~ C ~ == ˘ C O So O o 5 D .,= O O (_)
From page 187...
... 187 ~ 1 A ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ A o o o o o o o o o o o o ~ o o ~ j A o ~ Go ~ ~ o oo ~ oo ~ o ~ ~ ~ o o o ~ o ~ o o en.
From page 188...
... 188 do ˘ o cn o ED o ~ Cl)
From page 190...
... Data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey show similar trends: 52.4% of new mothers in the United States were breastfeeding their newborns and that percentage dropped to 11.8% at 6 months and to 1.5% at 1 year (Table 59~. They also show that breastfeeding rates among low-income women are lower than the national average.
From page 191...
... The points represent average intakes obtained in 16 studies that included test weighing, validated exclusive breastfeeding, three or more subjects, and monthly reports on milk transfer. SOURCE: Neville et al., 1988, with permission.
From page 192...
... Unfortunately, the analysis could not be made available to the committee in time for inclusion in this report. As demonstrated by the preceding discussion and accompanying tables, use of available intake data to assess dietary exposures of nursing infants is complex.
From page 193...
... In contrast, 148 RACs were reported for the 457 nonnursing infants sampled, indicating a relative lack of diversity in the diets of this subgroup. It is therefore important to monitor both the percentage of total diet and the multiple of the national average consumption for each food and for each age group to identify areas relative to dietary exposure to pesticides.
From page 194...
... As noted earlier in this chapter, water intake is considerably higher for infants than for other age categories. The sources of this high intake include foods such as concentrated juices, cereals, and infant formula that are mixed with water prior to consumption.
From page 195...
... To determine the significance of this observation, the committee identified the 25 foods most consumed by 170 1-year-old children in the 19851986 CSFII. Results from DRES calculations based on CSFII results illustrate that mean intake data clearly do not reflect the actual intakes of some foods by some subjects and therefore that their use can lead to underestimates of pesticide exposure.
From page 196...
... · Water, as drinking water and as a component of food, is not adequately considered in most consumption surveys. · Examination of intake data by age categories clearly illustrates the differences in consumption patterns that must be considered when estimating exposure of infants and children to pesticides; however, current information on food and water intake by age category is insufficient to produce credible exposure estimates.
From page 197...
... · Because of the changing nature of children's diets during growth, food consumption surveys should include adequate sample sizes of children aged O to 12 months, 13 to 24 months, 25 to 36 months, 37 to 48 months, 49 to 60 months, 5 to 10 years, and 11 to 18 years. · Intake data and survey methodology need to be standardized to make them more useful in a variety of applications, including estimating exposure and assessing risk.
From page 198...
... 1989. Total Water and Tapwater Intake in the United States: Population-Based Estimates of Quantities and Sources.
From page 199...
... 1987. Misclassification of nutrient intake of individuals and groups using one-, two-, three-, and seven-day food records.
From page 200...
... 1983. Interim Report Number 1: The Construction of a Raw Agricultural Commodity Consumption Data Base.
From page 201...
... Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals: Women 19-50 Years and Their Children 1-5 Years, 1 Day, 1986. Report No.


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