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Appendix C: Review of Literature on Known Project SHAD Agents, Simulants, Tracers, and Decontaminants
Pages 127-150

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From page 127...
... 14. Sulfur dioxide 15.
From page 128...
... The databases searched were Medline, Toxline, Embase, Science Citation Index within the Web of Science, Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System (CCRIS) , Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)
From page 129...
... atrophaeus provided no evidence for identifying specific long-term health effects that might be associated with exposure during SHAD testing. Betapropiolactone (BPL)
From page 130...
... determined that calcium hypochlorite is not classifiable regarding its carcinogenicity. Available studies of calcium hypochlorite provided no evidence for identifying specific long-term health effects that might be associated with exposure during SHAD testing.
From page 131...
... burnetii, the committee tested the hypotheses that participation in SHAD tests that used C burnetii may be associated with increased risk for the following conditions: • Endocarditis • Vascular infection • Chronic hepatitis • Osteomyelitis • Post Q-fever fatigue syndrome Diethylphthalate (DEP)
From page 132...
... . Studies of DEP provided no evidence for identifying specific long-term health effects that might be associated with exposure during SHAD testing.
From page 133...
... . Studies of MAA provided no evidence for identifying specific long-term health effects that might be associated with exposure during SHAD testing.
From page 134...
... . Taken together, the available studies of phenol provided no evidence for identifying specific long-term health effects that might be associated with exposure to phenol during SHAD testing.
From page 135...
... Exposure levels are typically uncertain or approximate, and studies have frequently relied on self-report to assess health outcomes. Taking into account the evidence available on the effects of high-dose exposures, the IOM Gulf War and Health committee found "limited/suggestive evidence of an association between exposure to sarin at doses sufficient to cause acute cholinergic signs and symptoms and a variety of subsequent longterm neurological effects" (IOM, 2004, p.
From page 136...
... . Based on the evidence available regarding potential long-term health effects associated with exposure to sarin, the committee tested the hypotheses that participation in SHAD tests that used sarin may be associated with increased risk for the following conditions: • Neurological effects • Psychological symptoms Serratia marcescens (S.
From page 137...
... marcescens provided no evidence for identifying specific long-term health effects that might be associated with exposure during the SHAD testing. Staphylococcal enterotoxin type B (SEB)
From page 138...
... found inadequate evidence to determine its carcinogenicity in humans and limited evidence for its carcinogenicity in animals. The literature search seeking new reports since the 2004 CRI review found continued active research into the health effects of exposure to SO2.
From page 139...
... , and the articles that were identified did not provide new information concerning potential long-term health effects from exposure to the compound. Studies of TEHP provided no evidence for identifying specific long-term health effects that might be associated with exposure during SHAD testing.
From page 140...
... . Studies of uranine provided no evidence for identifying specific long-term health effects that might be associated with exposure during SHAD testing.
From page 141...
... . Studies of VX provided no evidence for identifying specific long-term health effects that might be associated with exposure during SHAD testing.
From page 142...
... Based on the evidence available regarding potential long-term health effects associated with exposure to ZnCdS, the committee tested the hypotheses that participation in SHAD tests that used this compound may be associated with increased risk for the following conditions: • Lung cancer • Kidney disease REFERENCES Academy of Medical Sciences.
From page 143...
... 2004. Necrotizing fasciitis due to Serratia marcescens.
From page 144...
... 2004k. Health effects of Project SHAD chemical agent: Sulfur dioxide.
From page 145...
... 2009. Skin ulcers and disseminated abscesses are characteristic of Serratia marcescens infection in older patients with chronic granulomatous disease.
From page 146...
... 2004. Gulf war and health: Updated literature review of sarin.
From page 147...
... 2007a. Effects of sulfur dioxide derivatives on four asthma-related gene expressions in human bronchial epithelial cells.
From page 148...
... 2006. Development of a microinstillation model of inhalation exposure to assess lung injury following exposure to toxic chemicals and nerve agents in guinea pigs.
From page 149...
... 2007. Acute toxic effects of nerve agent VX on respiratory dynamics and functions following microinsillation inhalation exposure in guinea pigs.
From page 150...
... 2012. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Serratia marcescens: A fatal complication of nephrotic syndrome.


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