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3 Federal Policies and Investments Supporting Parents and Children in the United States
Pages 101-124

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From page 101...
... . The parent- and child-­ ­ focused policies and programs funded with public dollars and administered or augmented at the state and local levels by government agencies, businesses, community-based organizations, and foundations are aimed at promoting a host of positive outcomes, including keeping children safe from harm; making sure they do not go to bed hungry; and reducing disparities in outcomes associated with parental characteristics, especially those related to income, race/ethnicity, and place of birth.
From page 102...
... • 1930 -- The Third White House Conference on Children resulted in the Children's Charter, which included 19 points focused on the health, wel fare, protection, and educational needs of children. • 1935 -- Passage of the Social Security Act authorized the Bureau to ad minister maternal and child health services, medical care for children with disabilities, and child welfare services.
From page 103...
... • 1969 -- DHEW housed the Office of Child Development (OCD) , which in turn housed the Children's Bureau, Head Start Bureau, and Bureau of Program Development and Resources.
From page 104...
... The chapter then turns to a description of federal policies and investments supporting parents and children, which include policies and investments that are universal or nearuniversal and those that are more targeted. The latter category encompasses economic support for low-income families and children, investments in child and parent education, support for parents of children with special needs and parents facing adversity, and policies and programs focused on family and parental leave.
From page 105...
... Taken together, these examples demonstrate how parenting knowledge about what to do and why it matters for keeping children safe and well can lead to changes in parenting practices within a relatively short period of time based on the advice, recommendations, and encouragement of trusted information sources, as well as the potential benefit of a penalty for not complying (child passenger safety in particular)
From page 106...
... . FEDERAL BUDGET SUPPORTING PARENTS AND CHILDREN As noted earlier, significant federal fiscal support is dedicated to children and to helping their parents provide for their basic needs.
From page 107...
... . FEDERAL POLICIES AND INVESTMENTS SUPPORTING PARENTS AND CHILDREN Some of the federal expenditures that provide families with direct economic support or services to enable them to better meet the needs of their children are universal, while others are tied to family income.
From page 108...
... and (2) tax expenditures, such as exclusions for employer-sponsored health insurance, the nonrefundable portions of the EITC and the Child Tax Credit, and other small expenditures ($71 billion in 2014)
From page 109...
... 15.8 Special education/Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 12.6 School improvement 4.4 Impact Aid 1.1 Dependents' schools abroad 1.2 Innovation and improvement 1.2 State Fiscal Stabilization Fund 1.1 Other education 4.3 Early Education and Care 12.8 Head Start (including Early Head Start) 7.7 Child Care and Development Fund 5.1 continued
From page 110...
... (Internal Revenue Service, 2015b)
From page 111...
... . Whereas the EITC is aimed at low-income families, both low- and middle-income families are eligible for the Child Tax Credit; for married individuals filing jointly, phaseout begins at $110,000 (Internal Revenue Service, 2015c)
From page 112...
... Among other enhancements, the ACA expanded Medicaid and improved child coverage; increased access to essential health benefits such as maternity and newborn care, pediatric services, and mental health and substance abuse services; and allowed parents to select a pediatrician for their child. Medicaid ($77.6 billion in federal expenditures for children in 2014)
From page 113...
... , the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) , and the National School Breakfast and National School Lunch Programs.
From page 114...
... . Federal programs promoting child nutrition also include the National School Breakfast Program and the National School Lunch Program, both of which are offered in schools as well as in residential child care institutions.
From page 115...
... . The federal Child Support Enforcement Program aims to encourage parental responsibility "so that children receive financial, emotional, and medical support from both parents, even when they live in separate households" (Office of Child Support Enforcement, 2015a)
From page 116...
... State and local funding for public education for children ages 5-8 dwarfs federal funding for children in this age range. The Head Start Program was established in 1965 to support the school readiness of low-income children ages 3-5 through the provision of preschool education and supportive services to families.
From page 117...
... . In the 2014-2015 program year, almost 1.1 million children ages 0-5 and pregnant women were served by the two programs (Office of Head Start, 2015)
From page 118...
... In the area of child welfare, there are investments in programs that are aimed at preventing and addressing child maltreatment and that provide assistance to kinship and foster parents. In 2015, for instance, nearly $445 million in mandatory funding was allocated for the Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program, which, through state grants, aims to prevent unnecessary separation of children from their families and promote child permanency.
From page 119...
... There is no easy way to map the evidence-based parenting knowledge, attitudes, and practices identified in Chapter 2 to the federal budget; however, a review of the budget and a general understanding of the policy and funding structure provides an overview of the existing framework for the programs reviewed in Chapters 4 and 5. Although many children interface with specific programs, the committee notes that there is no simple way to compute how many children receive services through mul
From page 120...
... Understanding how federal funding flows into programs directly and indirectly to support parents and children informs the development and financing of a new framework for providing this support. The following key points emerged from the committee's review of federal policies and investments supporting parents and children: • The United States has a long history of funding policies and pro grams with the goal of improving children's outcomes and the well-being of families and society.
From page 121...
... . Chart Book: The Earned Income Tax Credit and Child Tax Credit.
From page 122...
... Office of Child Support Enforcement.
From page 123...
... . Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: FY13 through FY16 National View Summary.


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