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1 Introduction
Pages 15-44

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From page 15...
... It lies as well with governments and organizations at the local/community, state, and national levels that provide programs and services to support parents and families. Society benefits socially and economically from providing current and future generations of parents with the support they need to raise healthy and thriving children (Karoly et al., 2005; Lee et al., 2015)
From page 16...
... Whether located in early childhood programs, school-based classrooms, well-child clinics, or family networks, support for parents of young children is critical to enhancing healthy early childhood experiences, promoting positive outcomes for children, and helping parents build strong relationships with their children (see Box 1-1)
From page 17...
... Many families in the United States are affected by such hardships, which include poverty, parental mental illness and substance use, and violence in the home. A second challenge is inadequate attention to identifying effective strategies for engaging and utilizing the strengths of fathers, discussed later in this chapter and elsewhere in this report.
From page 18...
... . Family structure also has grown increasingly diverse across class, race, and ethnicity, with fewer children now being raised in households with two married parents; more living with same-sex parents; and more living with kinship caregivers, such as grandparents, and in other household arrangements (Child Trends Databank, 2015b)
From page 19...
... Given the multi- and interdisciplinary nature of the study task, the 18-member committee comprised individuals with an array of expertise, including child development, early childhood education, developmental and educational psychology, child psychiatry, social work, family engagement research, pediatric medicine, public and health policy, health communications, implementation science, law, and economics (see Appendix D for biosketches of the committee members)
From page 20...
...  What are the core parenting KAPs, as identified in the literature,  that support healthy child development, birth to age 8? Do core parenting KAPs differ by specific characteristics of children (e.g., age)
From page 21...
... 4.  What are the most pronounced barriers, including lack of incentives, to strengthening parenting capacity and retention in effective programs and systems designed to improve developmental, health, and education outcomes for children birth to age 8?
From page 22...
... Parenting knowledge, attitudes, and practices are shaped, in part, by parents' own experiences (including those from their own childhood) and circumstances; expectations and practices learned from others, such as family, friends, and other social networks; and beliefs transferred through cultural and social systems.
From page 23...
... Indeed, an important responsibility of parents is identifying those who will care for their children in their absence. Those individuals may include family members and others in parents' immediate circle, but they increasingly include nonfamily members who provide care and education in formal and informal settings outside the home, such as schools and home daycare centers.
From page 24...
... . While children represent approximately one-quarter of the country's population, they make up 32 percent of all the country's citizens who live in poverty (Child Trends Databank, 2015a)
From page 25...
... compared with Asian and white children (5% each) (Child Trends Databank, 2015a)
From page 26...
... decreased from approximately 85 percent to 64 percent. In 1960, 8 percent of children lived in households headed by single mothers; by 2014, that figure had tripled to about 24 percent (Child Trends Databank, 2015b; U.S.
From page 27...
... . children lived with two parents, compared with 58 percent of Hispanic children, 75 percent of white children, and 85 percent of Asian children (Child Trends Databank, 2015b)
From page 28...
... children under age 18 are in foster care with about one-quarter of these children living with relatives (Child Trends Databank, 2015c)
From page 29...
... Despite engagement with Internet resources, parents still report turning to family, friends, and physicians more often than to online sources such as Websites, blogs, and social network sites for parenting advice (Center on Media and Human Development, 2014)
From page 30...
... These include longitudinal studies and limited cross-sectional studies. Although quasi- and nonexperimental studies may fail to meet the "gold standard" of randomized controlled trials for causal inference, studies with a variety of internal validity strengths and weaknesses can collectively provide useful evidence on causal influences (Duncan et al., 2014)
From page 31...
... This entailed considering the demographic, socioeconomic, and other characteristics of study participants; whether variables were assessed in the real-world contexts in which parents and children live (e.g., in the home, school, community) ; whether study findings build the knowledge base with regard to both efficacy (i.e., internal validity in highly controlled settings)
From page 32...
... levels. The review of the evidence conducted for this study, especially pertaining to strategies that work at the universal, targeted, and intensive levels to strengthen parenting capacity (questions 2 and 3 from the committee's statement of task [Box 1-2]
From page 33...
... Lastly, a commissioned paper on evidencebased strategies to support parents of children with mental illness formed the basis for a report section on this population.4 In addition, the committee conducted two sets of group and individual semistructured interviews with parents participating in family support programs at community-based organizations in Omaha, Nebraska, and Washington, D.C. Parents provided feedback on the strengths they bring to parenting, challenges they face, how services for parents can be improved, and ways they prefer to receive parenting information, among other topics.
From page 34...
... The committee interpreted "evidence-based/informed strategies" very broadly as ranging from teaching a specific parenting skill, to manualized parenting programs, to policies that may affect parenting. The term "interventions" is generally used in this report to refer to all types of strategies, while more specific terms (e.g., "program," "well-child care")
From page 35...
... In many ways, supporting parents is one way to attempt to change that balance. From an intervention point of view, several principles are central.
From page 36...
... Chapter 3 provides a brief overview of some of the major federally funded programs and policies that support parents in the United States. Chapters 4 and 5 describe evidencebased and evidence-informed strategies for supporting parents and enabling the identified knowledge, attitudes, and practices, including universal and widely used interventions (Chapter 4)
From page 37...
... Chapter 7 describes a national framework for supporting parents of young children. Finally, Chapter 8 presents the committee's conclusions and recommendations for promoting the wide-scale adoption of effective intervention strategies and parenting practices linked to healthy child outcomes, as well as areas for future research.
From page 38...
... , 403-410. Child Trends Databank.
From page 39...
... . Valuing All Our Families: Progressive Policies That Strengthen Family Commitments and Reduce Family Disparities.
From page 40...
... Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Kaiser Family Foundation.
From page 41...
... Child Development, 71(1)
From page 42...
... . Deep Poverty among Children Worsened in Welfare Law's First Decade.
From page 43...
... . A longitudinal study of the association between violent video game play and aggression among adolescents.


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