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6 Elements of Effective Parenting Programs and Strategies for Increasing Program Participation and Retention
Pages 325-350

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From page 325...
... Those studies indicate that these interventions may be effective, achieving improvements in outcomes similar to those found for the manualized parent training programs that have been studied experimentally (Chorpita et al., 2013)
From page 326...
... The final section presents a summary. ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE PROGRAMS The elements of effective parenting programs include parents being treated as partners with providers, tailoring of interventions to the needs of both parents and children, service integration and interagency collaborative care, peer support, trauma-informed services, cultural relevance, and inclusion of fathers.
From page 327...
... The importance of personalized approaches to parenting skills also is central in working with parents with mental illness. Depressed parents, for example, may benefit particularly from training in dealing with conflict and difficult child behaviors, whereas those with borderline personality disorder may gain the most from education in providing a consistent routine and nurturing (Beeber et al., 2014; Stepp et al., 2012)
From page 328...
... . In a recent systematic review of 26 qualitative studies in which parents were asked about why they did or did not enroll in or complete a parenting program, the time and place of the program delivery and the lack of collocation of classes with child care emerged as major factors related to participation (Mytton et al., 2014)
From page 329...
... For our culture, we don't want to put kids in daycare either." -- Mother from Omaha, Nebraska Service Integration and Inter-agency Collaborative Care Service integration continues to be particularly important in the provision of services for families facing multiple challenges, including histories of trauma, substance use, relationship instability, and lack of social supports (Hernandez-Avila et al., 2004; Howell and Chasnoff, 1999)
From page 330...
... . Parenting programs using a multifamily or multiparent group format allow participants to share their parenting experiences with others who serve as a source of social support and peer learning (Coatsworth et al., 2006; Levac et al., 2008; McKay et al., 1995)
From page 331...
... . Children who have experienced significant trauma without adequate parental support tend to have a heightened sense of vulnerability and sensitivity to environmental threats; experience high levels of guilt and shame; and have high rates of anxiety and depressive symptoms, including hypervigilance, hopelessness, anhedonia, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (Armsworth and Holaday, 1993; van der Kolk, 2005)
From page 332...
... In both instances, parents must find safe places for their children and navigate the turmoil that can have potentially deleterious effects on their children and themselves. Considering the high prevalence of trauma among at-risk parents and the impact of traumatic events on parenting and child development, assessing for past traumatic experiences and providing trauma-informed care for all at-risk parents can improve outcomes and may be cost effective in the long run (Hornby Zeller Associates, 2011)
From page 333...
... indicate growing awareness of the importance of developing and testing innovative ways to engage, retain, and educate Latino families. At the same time, parenting programs delivered without significant modification and not incorporating tested cultural adaptations are sometimes viewed as highly attractive by local communities.
From page 334...
... It was then that other fathers in his neighborhood led him to Fatherhood Is Sacred, where he was immediately welcomed into a safe environment. "As a grown man, I felt safe and invited and welcomed, like I was at home." Once he became engaged in the program, he began doing the work to strengthen his parenting skills -- work he had not been doing for 32 years.
From page 335...
... ADDITIONAL STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING PROGRAM PARTICIPATION AND RETENTION As noted above, evidence indicates that parenting programs often experience substantial difficulty in engaging and retaining parents, especially those facing multiple adversities. Some of the reasons for this difficulty are discussed in Chapter 5 and above.
From page 336...
... CCT programs traditionally have focused on improving children's health and well-being and conditioned families' receipt of cash transfers on receipt of recommended preventive health services or nutrition education and/or children's school attendance. CCTs are increasingly being used to promote other behaviors as well (Fernald, 2013)
From page 337...
... Based on the assumption that an ambivalent attitude is an obstacle to behavior change, motivational interviewing helps clients explore and resolve ambivalence to improve their motivation to change their behavior (Miller and Rollnick, 1991; Resnicow and McMaster, 2012; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015a)
From page 338...
... Although motivational interviewing is a core component of effective programs designed for parents and families, such as Homebuilders and Family Check-Up, very little research has evaluated the specific effects of motivational practices on parents' participation. In a study of 192 parents that used a double randomized design, a self-motivational orientation intervention combined with PCIT increased retention in child welfare parenting services (Chaffin et al., 2009)
From page 339...
... report Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation reflects these research findings, identifying "the ability to communicate and connect with families in a mutually respectful, reciprocal way, and to set goals with families and prepare them to engage in complementary behaviors and activities that enhance development and early learning" as knowledge and competencies important for all professionals who provide direct, regular care and education for young children to support their development and early learning. The importance of professionals having skills in working with families is currently reflected in several laws and policies pertinent to programs supporting children's education and in core competencies for care and education professionals.
From page 340...
... For example, virtually all of nearly 250 graduate schools of social work have courses on working with families for their clinical students and taking diversity and difference into account in social work practice. These courses focus on family therapy, which is typically used for families with older children who can participate in family communication.
From page 341...
... SUMMARY The following key points emerged from the committee's examination of elements of effective parenting programs and strategies for increasing participation and retention. • Although no single approach is applicable to and will yield the same positive results for all parents, elements that the committee found to be successful across a wide-range of programs and ser vices for parents are --  viewing parents as equal partners in determining the types of services that would most benefit them and their children; -- ailoring interventions to meet the specific needs of families; t -- ntegrating services for families with multiple service needs; i --  reating opportunities for parents to receive support from peers c to increase engagement, reduce stigma, and increase their sense of connection to other parents with similar circumstances;
From page 342...
... Some indicate that monetary incentives may enhance initial interest in and recruitment into programs for some parents, but do not necessarily lead to improvements in attendance. • Preliminary experimental data on the use of conditional cash trans fers to incentivize low-income families' engagement in behaviors that can enhance their well-being show an association between receipt of cash transfers and improvements in some economic out comes, such as reduced poverty, food insecurity, and housing hard ships and increased employment.
From page 343...
... . Common components of parenting programs for children birth to eight years of age involved with child welfare services.
From page 344...
... . The process of developing and implementing a telephone-based peer support program for postpartum depression: Evidence from two randomized controlled trials.
From page 345...
... . Effects of monetary incentives on engagement in the PACE Parenting Program.
From page 346...
... . Assessing an Internet-based parenting intervention for mothers with a serious mental illness: A randomized controlled trial.
From page 347...
... . Randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention for increasing participation in parent management training.
From page 348...
... . Conditional Cash Transfers in New York City: The Continuing Story of the Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards Demonstration.
From page 349...
... Exploring the potential of motivational interviewing. Journal of Social Work Practice, 25(4)


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