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Appendix C: Table of Parenting Interventions
Pages 413-498

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From page 413...
... to identify parenting programs with strong evidence of effectiveness for supporting parenting knowledge, attitudes, or practices1 for parents of children ages 0-8. The following table draws on those sources to present information on the parenting support interventions that are discussed in this report.
From page 414...
... 414 PARENTING MATTERS TABLE C-1  Evidence-Based Interventions That Support Parenting Program Name Target Population Intervention Description 1-2-3 Magic: Parents, Group-format discipline program that divides Effective Discipline grandparents, parenting responsibilities into three straightforward for Children 2-12 teachers, babysitters, tasks: controlling negative behavior, encouraging and other good behavior, and strengthening the child-parent caretakers working relationship. The program seeks to encourage with children gentle, but firm, discipline without arguing, yelling, approximately ages or spanking.
From page 415...
... (3) Strengthen Relationships -- Parents learn powerful techniques that reinforce their bond with their children.
From page 416...
... 416 PARENTING MATTERS Program Name Target Population Intervention Description Adolescent First-time pregnant Support to first-time pregnant and parenting teens Parenting Program and parenting youth through intensive home visiting and peer group (APP) ages 12-19 who education must be enrolled in school or a Monthly home visits, along with 24 hours of group GED completion education program, and their children ages 0-5
From page 417...
... Baby or Parents as Teachers The program is designed to increase home visiting the self-sufficiency outcomes for curriculum. participants by increasing the time to Staff must also a subsequent pregnancy; increasing complete at rates of graduation from high school least 18 hours with a diploma or completion of of professional GED; increasing successful transition development to adulthood, including enrollment in training postsecondary education, vocational annually, aimed training, or employment at a livable at improving wage; and living in safe and stable program housing after graduation from the outcomes.
From page 418...
... * as other coexisting contingency management skills training, problems, such as communication skills training, child management depression, family skills training, job-getting skills training, financial dysfunction, trauma, management, self-control, environmental control, child maltreatment, home safety and aesthetics tours, and teletherapy to noncompliance, improve session attendance employment, HIV/ sexually transmitted Starts with 1- to 2-hour initial outpatient or home infection risk based sessions once or twice in the first week, behavior, and poor then declines in frequency depending on multiple communication factors that are determined among the client, the skills client's family, and the treatment provider (e.g., population, setting, intensity of treatment plan, effort)
From page 419...
... rewards through establishing family They should support systems; treatment planning; ideally have communication skills training; child experience in management skills training, where conducting parents learn to discipline their children evidence-based by catching them being good, engaging therapies, in positive practice learning exercises, particularly and when necessary, providing firm cognitivedirectives and undesired consequences; behavioral training in job-getting skills, financial therapies, and management; self-control intervention; should have assurance of basic necessities, home professional safety and aesthetics tour, environmental therapeutic control. experience serving the Addresses the following: alcohol population that and drug misuse, depression, school/ is being targeted work attendance problems, parenting for treatment.
From page 420...
... The second intervention component helps caregivers provide a responsive, predictable environment that enhances young children's behavioral and regulatory capabilities. The third intervention component helps caregivers decrease behaviors that could be overwhelming or frightening to a young child.
From page 421...
... Provides services to parents/caregivers and addresses the following: Has child that pushes caregivers away or has difficulty being soothed; has child with behavioral and biological dysregulation; has difficulty in providing parental nurturance, following the lead, or delighting; has tendency to be frightening or overwhelming; has own history of care that may interfere with parenting. The child is involved in the home visits to show the parents new skills, and the parents are expected to observe and note the child's behavior and practice new skills between sessions.
From page 422...
... maltreating fathers Children who have physically abused, emotionally 17 2-hour weekly sessions abused, or neglected their children, have exposed their children to domestic violence, or are deemed to be at high risk for these behaviors
From page 423...
... guidebook, $38 each Average per-couple cost estimated in 1997 to be about $1,400; included clinician training, staff salaries, overhead, workbooks, etc. Combination of motivation No specific None provided CEBC: enhancement, parent education formal NR (including skills training and behavioral qualifications CEBC: practice)
From page 424...
... 424 PARENTING MATTERS Program Name Target Population Intervention Description Chicago Parent Parents of children Parenting-skills training program designed to Program (CPP) ages 2-5 originally improve parenting self-efficacy and promote for low-income positive parenting behavior and child discipline African American strategies.
From page 425...
... , child behavior must successfully expenses; in other management skills (e.g., following complete a 2-day cities, $3,000 for up through with consequences, using CPP group to 20 participants, effective forms of discipline) , stress leader training.
From page 426...
... The traumatic event or intervention focuses on increasing communication recently disclosed between the caregiver and child about the child's the trauma of traumatic stress reactions and on providing skills physical or sexual to the family to help cope with traumatic stress abuse reactions Four to eight weekly sessions lasting 45-60 minutes each
From page 427...
... . or $15 for hard Welfare session 2, the clinician first meets with copy; 2-day training the child alone to provide education costs $3,000 per NREPP: about trauma and children's typical day for up to 30 3.0 reactions to traumatic exposure and to participants, plus use standardized assessment instruments travel expenses; 6 to obtain the child's assessment of his months of biweekly or her traumatic stress reactions.
From page 428...
... (CPP) experienced at least as a vehicle for restoring the child's sense of safety, one traumatic event attachment, and appropriate affect and improving and are experiencing the child's cognitive, behavioral, and social behavior, functioning attachment, and/ or mental health Weekly 1- to 1.5-hour sessions for approximately problems a year
From page 429...
... sites, event: help parent acknowledge what or free (except child has witnessed and remembered; travel) 1.5-year help parent and child understand training through the each other's reality with regard to the NCTSN Learning trauma; provide developmental guidance Collaborative acknowledging response to trauma; Model, or 1.5-year make linkages between past experiences training for a and current thoughts, feelings, and learning community behaviors; help parent understand or an individual link between her own experiences and agency at a cost current feelings and parenting practices; of $1,500-$3,000 highlight the difference between past per day of training and present circumstances; support for up to 30 parent and child in creating a joint participants, plus narrative; reinforce behaviors that help travel expenses parent and child master the trauma and gain a new perspective.
From page 430...
... helping children to develop relationships within and outside the family to facilitate their independent functioning in school and in activities outside the home. 6-11 modules that include separate meetings with parents and children, family meetings, and telephone contacts or refresher meetings at 6- to 9-month intervals
From page 431...
... . Provides services to parents/caregivers to address negative attributions about the child, problems in the parentchild relationship, and maladaptive parenting strategies.
From page 432...
... * for exposure to a students exposed to traumatic life events, such as traumatic event and community and school violence, physical abuse, symptoms of PTSD domestic violence, accidents, and natural disasters related to that event 10 45-minute group sessions and 1-3 30-minute individual sessions for students, 2 parent psychoeducational sessions, and a teacher educational session
From page 433...
... $90,000 per year for a full-time This program involves the family or social worker, the other support systems in the individual's estimated cost per treatment. The program includes participant is $430.
From page 434...
... families program providing comprehensive child development services in a center-based setting, supplemented with home visits Weekly home visits and bimonthly group socialization experiences Families and Families Multifamily group intervention designed to build Schools Together with children relationships between and within families, schools, (FAST)
From page 435...
... Also serves children through locally Teacher and Not specified CEBC: 3 designed family child care options, in other EHS staff CEBC: which certified child care providers care Medium for children in their homes. Services Child include early education both in and Welfare out of the home, parenting education, comprehensive health and mental health services for mothers and children, nutrition education, and family support services.
From page 436...
... for Toddlers children ages 17 motivates parents to use parenting practices in months-2 support of child competence, mental health, and reduced risk for substance use; can be integrated into a variety of service settings, including schools, primary care, and community mental health Phase 1 involves 3 1-hour sessions. Phase 2 can be limited to 1 to 3 Everyday Parenting sessions; as a treatment approach, Phase 2 can range from 3 to 15 Everyday Parenting sessions.
From page 437...
... master's degree training manual 3.1 Everyday Parenting as a follow-up in education, costs $104.25 per service that builds parents' skills in social work, provider; 2-day positive behavior support, healthy limit counseling, or FCU training costs setting, and relationship building. related areas $4,194 + trainer generally travel costs for 1 implement trainer and up to the program; approximately 8-10 however, trainees; 2-day bachelor's- and Everyday Parenting paraprofessional/ training costs nonbachelor's- $4,194 + trainer level providers, travel costs for 1 with the trainer and up to appropriate approximately 8-10 consultation trainees; additional and supervisory costs incurred if the support, may site wants providers also implement to become certified.
From page 438...
... 438 PARENTING MATTERS Program Name Target Population Intervention Description Family Connections Families at risk for Multifaceted, community-based service program (FC) child maltreatment that works with families in their homes and in the context of their neighborhoods to help them meet the basic needs of their children and prevent child maltreatment A minimum of 1 hour of face-to-face contact between the social worker and clients weekly for 3-4 months, with an optional 90-day extension if needed Family Adult couples Aims to help establish positive parenting skills and Foundations*
From page 439...
... Individualized family intervention is geared to increase protective factors; decrease risk factors; and target child safety, well-being, and permanency outcomes. Addresses the following: Poor household conditions, financial stress, inadequate social support, parenting stress and poor parenting attitudes, unsafe caregiver/child interactions, poor family functioning, poor adult functioning (e.g., mental health problems/substance abuse)
From page 440...
... The 63 lessons can be delivered in 52 home visits, which occur weekly through 3 months postpartum and gradually become less frequent thereafter.
From page 441...
... resources; 3-year membership to the Web-based FS Connect; and consultation and technical assistance before training to establish needs and after training to support program implementation, sustainability, and data collection) is $9,600 per program, plus travel expenses.
From page 442...
... 442 PARENTING MATTERS Program Name Target Population Intervention Description Head Start REDI Enrichment intervention that can be integrated into the existing framework of Head Start programs that are already using the High/Scope or Creative Curriculum. The intervention is delivered by classroom teachers and integrated into their ongoing classroom programs.
From page 443...
... receive take-home materials describing as a Preschool the importance of positive support, PATHS/REDI emotion coaching, and interactive teacher or reading, with parenting tips and learning PATHS/REDI activities to use at home. coach; master's degree (or comparable credentials)
From page 444...
... (HFA) child abuse and neglect and other Families are to be offered weekly home visits for a adverse childhood minimum of 6 months after the birth of the baby.
From page 445...
... . populations Depending on the family's needs, that are present the program may also be linked to among the additional services, such as financial, program's target food, and housing assistance programs; population; and school readiness programs; child care; knowledge of job training programs; family support infant and child centers; substance abuse treatment development.
From page 446...
... 446 PARENTING MATTERS Program Name Target Population Intervention Description Healthy Families America (Home Visiting for Child Well-Being)
From page 447...
... The end result is formation of a strong attachment to the parent or caregiver. It is critical that early caregivers know how to promote healthy social and emotional wellbeing through nurturing and consistent relationships.
From page 448...
... problems Classroom program meets for half-days (2.5 hours per day) , 5 days a week for 7 months of the year, with 90-minute weekly home visits by preschool teachers.
From page 449...
... The curriculum costs approximately $800 per classroom. Estimated cost for consumable is $500-$1,000 per classroom per year.
From page 450...
... Service delivery is primarily through home visits. A home visit consists of a 1-hour, one-on-one interaction between the home visitor and the assigned parents.
From page 451...
... encourages them to seek further Provides services to parents/caregivers education. Many that address low literacy level and home visitors limited English proficiency.
From page 452...
... Family is usually experiencing such problems as child abuse and neglect, other family violence, juvenile delinquency, mental illness, and/or substance abuse.
From page 453...
... , counseling, professionals, travel expenses. modeling of parenting skills, extensive probate courts, interagency treatment planning, and or domestic Core Curriculum family advocacy within the community violence shelters.
From page 454...
... 454 PARENTING MATTERS Program Name Target Population Intervention Description Homebuilders (continued)
From page 455...
... 3- to 4-day onsite visits (twice per year) cost $1,250 per day, plus travel expenses.
From page 456...
... ; IY twice weekly over consecutive years. The small Preschool Program group treatment program consists of 18-22 weekly (ages 3-5)
From page 457...
... Each program includes protocols for use as a prevention program or as a treatment program for children with conduct problems and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
From page 458...
... 458 PARENTING MATTERS Program Name Target Population Intervention Description Incredible Years Families of Small-group treatment program designed (IY) -Child children ages 4-8 to enhance social competence, positive peer Treatment with conduct interactions, conflict management strategies, problems, ADHD, emotional literacy, and anger management.
From page 459...
... program is organized to dovetail with problem solving, A set of program the IY parent training programs. and sharing of DVDs and materials ideas.
From page 460...
... , and School Age Program (6-12 years; 12-16+ sessions)
From page 461...
... recognition is based on evaluations rehearsals, A set of program of this program. This BASIC parent problem solving, DVDs costs $1,595 training component emphasizes such sharing of ideas, for Preschool parenting skills as child-directed play and support BASIC ($1,895 with children; academic, persistence, networks.
From page 462...
... 462 PARENTING MATTERS Program Name Target Population Intervention Description Kids' Club Children ages 6-12 Preventive intervention program that targets & Moms' and their mothers children's knowledge about family violence, their Empowerment* exposed to intimate attitudes and beliefs about families and family partner violence in violence, their emotional adjustment, and their the last year social behavior in the small group.
From page 463...
... The goals of Moms' Empowerment are reducing the level of mothers' traumatic stress and violence exposure, enhancing mothers' safety and ability to parent under stress, and providing support and resources in a group setting.
From page 464...
... Weekly home visits for the first month after enrollment and then every other week until the baby is born. Visits are weekly for the first 6 weeks after the baby is born and then every other week until the baby is 20 months old.
From page 465...
... bachelor's degree total $711,000 but in nursing as costs vary based on Objectives include improving women's a minimum local salary levels. diets; helping women monitor their qualification, weight gain and eliminate the use with a master's Travel is a of cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs; degree in nursing significant expense, teaching parents to identify the signs of preferred.
From page 466...
... Nurturing Families who have Instruction-based program for the prevention Parenting Program been identified and treatment of child abuse and neglect is (NPP) by child welfare based on psychoeducational and cognitive agencies for past behavioral approaches to learning and focuses child abuse and on "reparenting," or helping parents learn new neglect or who are patterns of parenting to replace their existing, at high risk for child learned abusive patterns.
From page 467...
... parenting skills as dads, moms, sons, participating in costs $300-$2,000, and daughters. Participants develop the program.
From page 468...
... Can be tailored for specific clinical problems, such as antisocial behavior, conduct problems, substance abuse, and child neglect and abuse. 1.5- to 2-hour weekly parent group sessions and 60-minute weekly individual/family sessions; 14 group sessions and 20-25 individual/family sessions, depending on severity; individual family treatment is not typically provided together with group treatment.
From page 469...
... woven into the program throughout relevant components. Beyond Phase 3 costs an estimated Goals include improving parenting $12,000 yearly.
From page 470...
... Parents learn and practice these skills with their child in a playroom while coached by a therapist. The coaching provides parents with immediate feedback on their use of the new parenting skills, which enables them to apply the skills correctly and master them rapidly.
From page 471...
... During the The model CDI phase, parents learn nondirective often requires play skills similar to those used in play modification therapy and engage their child in a play of space at an situation with the goal of strengthening estimated cost of the parent-child relationship. During $1,000-$1,500.
From page 472...
... 472 PARENTING MATTERS Program Name Target Population Intervention Description Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) (continued)
From page 473...
... Parent goals include teaching parents specific discipline techniques that help children listen to instructions and follow directions, decreasing problematic child behaviors by teaching parents to be consistent and predictable, and helping parents develop confidence in managing their children's behaviors at home and in public. Provides services to children/adolescents that address noncompliance, aggression, rule breaking, disruptive behavior, dysfunctional attachment with parents, and internalizing symptoms.
From page 474...
... 474 PARENTING MATTERS Program Name Target Population Intervention Description ParentCorps Parents and their Family-centered preventive intervention designed to young children ages foster healthy development and school success of 3-6 living in low- young children income communities Weekly series of 14 2-hour group sessions that occur concurrently for parents and children
From page 475...
... In support of training costs $50 individualized goals that parents set for per user. 5-day children, teachers promote skills and training at New shape behaviors using strategies that York University complement the parenting strategies costs $5,000 per being introduced to parents.
From page 476...
... 476 PARENTING MATTERS Program Name Target Population Intervention Description Parenting Wisely Parents of children A set of self-instructional interactive, computer ages 3-18 at risk for based training programs based on social learning, or with behavior cognitive-behavioral, and family systems problems, substance theories, the program aims to increase parental abuse problems, or communication and disciplinary skills. delinquency All nine sessions can be completed in 2-3 hours.
From page 477...
... costs $659 Welfare DVD for group administration or an each. Additional interactive online program for individual parent workbooks NREPP: administration, with 10 video scenarios cost $6.75-$9.00 2.73 depicting common challenges with each, depending adolescents.
From page 478...
... Annual health, hearing, vision, and developmental screenings, beginning within 90 days of enrollment, are a third component of the model. Home visits of approximately 60 minutes delivered weekly, every 2 weeks, or monthly, depending on family needs; optional monthly or more frequent group connections
From page 479...
... school diploma prenatally to age Parent-child interaction focuses on and 2 years of 3) costs about promoting positive parenting behaviors supervised work $800 per parent and child development through parent- experience with educator, but varies child activities.
From page 480...
... With these three doses, the duration of the program is at least a week and can be much longer since the infant crying period lasts up to 4-5 months, and a key element of the program is that each parent receives a copy of the DVD and booklet to take home. Play and Learning Children ages 5-15 Preventive intervention program to strengthen the Strategies-Infant months and their bond between parent and baby and to stimulate Program (PALS I)
From page 481...
... at least an associate's Goals include increasing parents' degree in early contingent responsiveness behaviors, childhood (or a rich language input, emotional/affective related field) or support, and ability to maintain their work experience child's focus of attention, and improving commensurate children's language, cognitive, and social with that outcomes.
From page 482...
... The program consists of 90-minute individual sessions in the family's home and lasts about 14 weeks. SafeCare® Parents at risk for In-home parenting program that targets risk factors or with a history of for child neglect and physical abuse.
From page 483...
... PALS II home visitors are supervised by a person with at least a bachelor's degree in early childhood education or a related field with 3-5 years' experience in parent education. Goals are to reduce future incidents of A college Not specified SafeCare® child maltreatment, increase positive education is CEBC: 2 parent-child interaction, improve how preferred, CEBC: parents care for their children's health, but the most High and enhance home safety and parent important Child supervision.
From page 484...
... 484 PARENTING MATTERS Program Name Target Population Intervention Description Strengthening Children ages 3-16 Family skills training program designed to increase Families Program resilience and reduce risk factors for behavioral, (SFP) emotional, academic, and social problems 14 weekly 2-hour sessions
From page 485...
... In the Family Life Skills Inc., the entity sessions, families engage in structured that coordinates family activities, practice therapeutic SFP training and child play, conduct family meetings, technical assistance, learn communication skills, practice can help in locating effective discipline, reinforce positive other trainings. behaviors in each other, and plan Training in the family activities together.
From page 486...
... group sizes ranging from 6 to 14 parents. Designed for use with parents facing Typically taught in 8 or 9 weekly 1.5-hour study typical parenting groups challenges; however, all the studies reviewed for this summary targeted families with an abusive parent, families at risk for parenting problems and child maltreatment, or families with a child receiving mental health treatment.
From page 487...
... . lessons are taught to parents on how to understand child behavior and misbehavior, practice positive listening, give encouragement (rather than praise)
From page 488...
... their traumatic exposure. Children experiencing childhood traumatic grief can also benefit from the treatment.
From page 489...
... Components include psychoeducation and parenting skills, relaxation techniques, affective expression and regulation, cognitive coping, trauma narrative and processing, in vivo exposure, conjoint parent-child sessions, and enhancing personal safety and future growth. Provides services to children/adolescents that address feelings of shame, distorted beliefs about self and others, actingout behavior problems, and PTSD and related symptoms.
From page 490...
... For the child in treatment, the program includes two contacts per week that comprise a 2-hour therapeutic playgroup and a 2-hour skills training session. For the biological family or other long-term placement resource, the program includes one contact per week in the form of a 1-hour skill-building session.
From page 491...
... In addition, the TFCO-P intervention employs a Foster parent developmental framework in which the consultants/ challenges of foster preschoolers are recruiters/ viewed from the perspective of delayed trainers must maturation. have knowledge of foster parents Goals include eliminating or reducing and a clear child problem behaviors; increasing understanding of developmentally appropriate normative the model.
From page 492...
... in its standard version and includes only evidence from research that evaluated the whole system. As a prevention program, Triple P helps parents learn strategies that promote social competence and self-regulation in children.
From page 493...
... Specific expected outcomes with a post- half-day follow-up include increasing parents' competence high school training (includes in promoting healthy development and degree in health, session fidelity managing common behavior problems education, checklists and and developmental issues; reducing child care, or pre-and postparents' use of coercive and punitive social services. test assessment methods of disciplining children; In exceptional measures)
From page 494...
... 20-minute individual telephone consultations for (continued) each family, offered over 8 consecutive weeks; (2)
From page 495...
... in a Triple P Directly provides services to parents/ Professionals program serving caregivers that address management of invited to 100,000 families: child behavior problems; management become Triple P training courses, of stress, mild to moderate depression trainers undergo $1,323,795; symptoms, anxiety, and anger; an intensive implementation parenting partner conflict; and negative 2-week training costs, $723,598; attributional thinking. program.
From page 496...
... work with their practitioner to fine tune their plan. Level 4 Triple P Level 4 Triple P practitioners are trained to work is applicable to with parents' strengths and to provide a supportive, parents of children nonjudgmental environment in which parents can and adolescents ages continually improve their parenting skills.
From page 497...
... children. Specific expected outcomes In exceptional include increasing parents' competence circumstances, in promoting healthy development and this requirement managing common behavior problems is relaxed when and developmental issues; reducing the prospective parents' use of coercive and punitive practitioners are methods of disciplining children; actively involved increasing parents' use of positive in "hands-on" parenting strategies in managing their roles dealing children's behavior; increasing parents' with the targeted confidence in raising their children; parents, children, decreasing child behavior problems and teenagers.


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