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2 Interregional Travel Behavior and Patterns
Pages 23-37

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From page 23...
... Interregional trips dominate long-distance travel. More than three-quarters of all long-distance trips in the ATS were for distances of 500 miles or less.3 An examination of the ATS indicates a number of relationships among interregional trip making, mode choice, trip length, trip purpose, and household characteristics.
From page 24...
... For 20 years, the ATS has been the only detailed source of information on long-distance travel in the United States. The relationships derived from it continue to be used by government transportation planners, transportation companies, and the tourism industry.
From page 25...
... The 1995 ATS remains the most recent comprehensive source of information on long-distance travel in the United States. Some of the basic relationships it reveals, such as the ways in which trip purpose, party size, and household income affect mode use and trip-making propensity, have been observed in other travel surveys, such as the Census of Transportation from 1977 and the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS)
From page 26...
... INSIGHTS INTO LONG-DISTANCE TRAVEL FROM THE 1995 ATS Historical Growth in Long-Distance Travel Historically, between 15 and 20 percent of all person miles of travel, including local travel, are from trips of 100 miles or longer.11 During 1995, Americans averaged about four long-distance trips per person by all modes (BTS 1997, 1, 11, Table 1)
From page 27...
... About 40 percent of the increase in person miles was due to population growth; most of the increase was caused by the combination of longdistance trips becoming longer on average, a larger share of the population taking trips, and travelers taking more trips on average. Mode Use and Trip Length Figure 2-2 shows the share of person trips of varying lengths made by automobile, airplane, train, and bus according to the 1995 ATS.
From page 28...
... Trip Purpose and Travel Party Type and Size For some activities such as participation in an out-of-town sales conference, client meeting, or family wedding, there may be no good substitutes for long-distance travel. For other activities such as vacationing, acceptable substitutes for a long-distance trip may exist.
From page 29...
... trips made for business and nonbusiness purposes, and they are usually treated separately in analyses of travel data.12 According to the ATS, nearly one-quarter of interregional trips in 1995 were made for business reasons (including business combined with pleasure) ; about three-quarters were made for nonbusiness reasons, such as to visit family and friends, participate in leisure activities (e.g., sightseeing, shopping, entertainment, outdoor recreation)
From page 30...
... Mode Use and Travel Party Type A strong relationship between mode use and travel party type can be seen in the ATS for interregional trips. Mode shares for travel parties consisting of a single person, two or more adults, and one or more adults traveling with at least one child are shown in Figure 2-5.
From page 31...
... 1.0 0.9 0.8 One or more adults with 0.7 child(ren) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 Private Air Bus Train vehicle FIGURE 2-5 Interregional travel mode share for three travel party types indexed to the mode share overall, 1995 ATS.
From page 32...
... The 1995 ATS data show a positive relationship between income and annual trips per capita. People in the lowest income quartile averaged about half as many interregional trips per year as people in the highest
From page 33...
... income quartile.13 The positive effect of income on interregional trips in the ATS is not surprising, since most studies of long-distance travel have estimated that as income increases, the number of long-distance trips increases at a faster rate (i.e., real household income growth of 1 percent leads to a 1 to 2 percent growth in trips made) .14 The ATS data also indicate that household income is associated with the use of specific transportation modes.
From page 34...
... Family households tend to make fewer leisure trips than couple households, but they average more business trips. Single households average the fewest trips for both business and nonbusiness purposes, probably because they are more likely to contain retirees.
From page 35...
... 6 5 Number of Trips 4 3 2 1 0 ≥15 16–29 30–49 50–64 65–79 ≥80 Age (years) FIGURE 2-9 Annual interregional trips per capita, by years of age, 1995 ATS.
From page 36...
... The data indicate that people traveling as families and in other groups for nonbusiness purposes have a strong tendency to use private automobiles for interregional trips under 500 miles; trips by bus, train, and airline are made disproportionately by people traveling alone or on business. Timesensitive business travelers account for many of the interregional trips made by airline when market distances approach about 200 miles.
From page 37...
... In Transportation Research Circular E-C026: Personal Travel: The Long and Short of It, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp.


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