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Pages 5-12

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From page 5...
... 5 1.1 Problem Statement and Research Objective Human error related to operator fatigue is a major concern in all freight operations. The general consensus is that 7 to 8 hours of sleep per 24-hour day is required to maintain acceptable levels of alertness, minimize fatigue, and permit optimum performance.
From page 6...
... 6 Enhancing Sleep Efficiency on Vessels in the Tug/Towboat/Barge Industry is described below, as are some of the fundamental aspects and characteristics of the sleep-wake cycle. In addition, the behavioral and physiological consequences of sleep deprivation, as well as the consequences of sleeping or being awake at the wrong times of the circadian day, are also described.
From page 7...
... Background 7 1.2.6 Duration of Sleep The average human needs about 7.5 to 8 hours of sleep per night to be fully refreshed. Even a small reduction in sleep time, for example, from 8 hours to 6 hours, can impair performance [Carskadon and Dement 1981, Carskadon and Dement 1982, National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)
From page 8...
... 8 Enhancing Sleep Efficiency on Vessels in the Tug/Towboat/Barge Industry aspects associated with fatigue and accidents in transportation operations, including the shipping, trucking, airline and railroad industries (Mitler et al. 1997, NTSB 1999, Lamond et al.
From page 9...
... Background 9 a few weeks) , and different studies have utilized different outcome measurements (e.g., subjective sleepiness, performance-based tests)
From page 10...
... 10 Enhancing Sleep Efficiency on Vessels in the Tug/Towboat/Barge Industry amount of data about the sleep habits and strategies of crew members attempting to obtain sufficient sleep while on the 6:6:6:6 square watch schedule for prolonged periods of time (e.g., 14 to 28 days) , as well as their sleep and wake habits when off duty.
From page 11...
... Background 11 This white paper led to the design of a Phase II study with the objective of developing a better understanding of the sleep-wake schedules and sleep amount of the crew members on board towing vessels that were using a 6 on: 6 off: 6 on: 6 off duty schedule. The Phase II proposal was developed after the research team rode on two towboat vessels to obtain first-hand exploratory information on the lives of crew members in the barge industry.
From page 12...
... 12 Enhancing Sleep Efficiency on Vessels in the Tug/Towboat/Barge Industry 3. The identification of those groups of individuals who did or did not change their sleep-wake behaviors and to what degree and why.

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