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Pages 30-71

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From page 30...
... 3-1 CHAPTER 3 RUNNING WAYS Running ways are a key element of BRT systems, around which planning and design of the other components revolve (see Figure 3-1)
From page 31...
... 3-2 ways or exclusive running ways with at-grade intersections may be essential.
From page 32...
... 3-3 TABLE 3-2 Examples of various types of running ways Facility Type Access Class Examples Busways Bus Tunnel Grade-Separated Runway At-Grade Busway 1 1 2 Boston, Seattle Ottawa, Pittsburgh Miami, Hartford Freeway Lanes Concurrent Flow Lanes Contra Flow Lanes Bus-Only or Priority Ramps 1 1 Ottawa New Jersey Approach to Lincoln Tunnel Los Angeles Arterial Streets Median Arterial Busway Curb Bus Lanes Dual Curb Lanes Interior Bus Lane Median Bus Lane Contra Flow Bus Lane Bus-Only Street Mixed Traffic Flow Queue Bypass 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 Curitiba, Vancouver Rouen, Vancouver Madison Avenue, NewYork City1 Boston Cleveland Los Angeles, Pittsburgh Portland1 Los Angeles Leeds, Vancouver 1Regular bus operations. 1 Curb bus lanes Parking Restricted Mixed Traffic with signal priorities No parking in peak hours Park-and-Ride Lot 5 Miles 5 Miles *
From page 33...
... Busway Busway Future Bus Tunnel Fr ee w ay Curb Bus Lanes CBD Core Curb Bus Lanes Curb Bus Lanes Limits of Central A rea Bus-Only Street Bus Bridge River * schematic - not to scale Figure 3-4.
From page 34...
... 3-5 TABLE 3-3 Running way costs and speeds Item Busway (Grade-Separated) Arterial Street Median Busway/Bus Lanes Typical Construction Costs (Millions per mile)
From page 35...
... 3-6 (SOURCE: St. Jacques and Levinson,1997)
From page 36...
... design length of 80 feet)
From page 37...
... 3-2. ON-STREET RUNNING WAYS On-street BRT running ways can provide downtown and residential distribution.
From page 38...
... strong sense of identity can be achieved by using colored pavement, unique paving materials, signals, and pavement markings in various combinations. Such treatments are especially important for curb bus lanes whenever the lanes operate at all times.
From page 39...
... be removed from the intersection. An "advance green" for buses could be provided when actuated by buses.
From page 40...
... When street width and circulation patterns permit and peak bus volumes exceed 90 to 100 buses per hour, dual bus lanes should be considered. This arrangement is used along Madison Avenue in midtown Manhattan.
From page 41...
... normally require one-way street systems with reasonable spacing between signalized intersections, generally 500 feet or more. They usually operate at all times.
From page 42...
... 3-13 accidents drop. When the lanes operate on a street that previously was one way, an increase may occur, especially initially.
From page 43...
... 3-14 enforcement is essential because the lanes -- unlike contra flow lanes -- are not self-enforcing.
From page 44...
... median arterial busways can provide attractive running ways and stations. The median bus lanes have continuous access, making enforcement difficult, but providing routes around disabled buses (e.g., back into mixed traffic)
From page 45...
... 3-16 imum width, and the higher values give the desirable minimum. Total curb-to-curb street widths generally range from 75 to 90 feet.
From page 46...
... 3-17 TABLE 3-6 Minimal roadway envelopes for median arterial busways (curb to curb) Left Turns Prohibited Left Turns Provided Single Traffic Lanes Each Side No Parking With Parking Lane 64–68 68–74 74–78 78–84 Two Traffic Lanes Each Side 76–84 86–90 NOTES: Lower values for 8-foot loading platform, 2-foot separation, 18-foot parking plus travel lane.
From page 47...
... Figure 3-15 shows the "staggered" station platform design used in South America. The design provides a center lane for express buses; its direction alternates, resulting in a threelane running way envelope.
From page 48...
... 3-19 (SOURCE: Gardner et al., 1991) Bus stop Bus stop BUS BUS BUS BU S BU S BU S BUS Typical Bus Stop Layout, Avenida Cristiano Machado, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Typical Bus Stop Layout, Avenida 9 de Julho, Sao Paulo, Brazil˜ Figure 3-15.
From page 49...
... 3-2.7. Bus Streets Bus streets or malls can provide early action cost-effective downtown distribution for both BRT and local buses.
From page 50...
... heavy bus volumes (e.g., over 90 buses per hour) , dual lanes are desirable in both directions.
From page 51...
... may be constructed at, above, or below grade (as in tunnels) , either in separate rights-of-way or within freeway corridors.
From page 52...
... Photo 3-G. Busway adjacent to freeway, Brisbane, Australia.
From page 53...
... tial to minimize rights-of-way. They work best if the majority of demand is to/from a single location (e.g., a CBD)
From page 54...
... 3-25 HIGH-DENSITY AREA CBD CBD HIGH-DENSITY AREA CARRY SPECIAL R/W BEYOND FREEWAY RING PARK-RIDE PRESERVE R/W FOR FUTURE EXTENSION DIRECT FREEWAY ACCESS TRAVERSE CBD PENETRATE HIGH-DENSITY AREA EXCESSIVE SERVICE VARIETIES NO BUSWAY FREEWAY ACCESS TERMINAL ECCENTRIC TO CBD, REQUIRING SECONDARY DISTRIBUTION POOR SERVICE THROUGH HIGHDENSITY AREA STATION TERMINAL BUSWAY BUS ROUTE ON SURFACE STREET FREEWAY FREEWAY WITH BUS LANE LEGEND DESIRABLE UNDESIRABLE (SOURCE: Levinson et al., 1975) Figure 3-19.
From page 55...
... tions permit common center-island station platforms that minimize the number of station stairways, supervision, and maintenance requirements. However, they require crossovers at beginning and end points or vehicles with doors on both sides.
From page 56...
... ing bus. These envelopes may vary based on local conditions, although they should be wide enough to permit safe and efficient operation.
From page 57...
... be narrower for limited distances in restricted situations. Ramp exit and entrance speed-change design should follow AASHTO criteria when possible.
From page 58...
... 3-29 2' 24'-25' 8'-10'8'-10' 42-45 FEET FREEWAY DESIRABLE DESIGN A 24' 2'2' 28 FEET FREEWAY MINIMUM DESIGN B FREEWAY FREEWAY 14' 12'12' 42 FEET FREEWAY DESIRABLE DESIGN C FREEWAY 2' 10' 12'12' 38 FEET FREEWAY REDUCED DESIGN D FREEWAY 2' 2' Figure 3-22. Busway cross sections within freeway median.
From page 59...
... Figure 3-24 illustrates busway transition concepts for sidealigned busways connecting with ramps at diamond and partial-cloverleaf interchange ramps. Figure 3-25 provides transition details for busways on their own right-of-way or within the median of a freeway.
From page 60...
... 3-31 NOTES: 1. Minimum outside radius for Busways - 50 ft.
From page 61...
... 3-32 (SOURCE: Levinson et al., 1975)
From page 62...
... 3-33 (SOURCE: Levinson et al., 1975) Figure 3-27.
From page 63...
... TABLE 3-10 Freeway facility options for BRT BRT APPLICATION FACILITY CONVENTIONAL ALL-DAY BRT SERVICE PEAK-HOUR COMMUTER EXPRESS SERVICE (NO STOPS) Exclusive Two-Way Facilities (Busways)
From page 64...
... 3-35 3-4.3. Design Guidelines Running way design should be consistent with established standards for the adjacent general purpose freeway.
From page 65...
... (SOURCE: Texas Transportation Institute et al., 1998) Figure 3-30.
From page 66...
... and deceleration lanes where the elevated ramps enter the main HOV roadway and (2) a 22- to 24-foot cross section for the single HOV lane, including a shoulder and travel lane.
From page 67...
... 3-38 4-foot separation from adjacent lanes is desirable where space permits. Normally, entrance to the concurrent flow lanes and exit from them is made from the main travel lanes.
From page 68...
... 3-39 enough to permit buses to pass stalled vehicles (e.g., a 20- to 24-foot envelope) , but this is not always practical.
From page 69...
... (SOURCE: Levinson et al., 1975)
From page 70...
... 3-41 (SOURCE: Levinson et al., 1975) Figure 3-37.
From page 71...
... demands such as a bus terminal, transfer station, major parkand-ride facility, sports complex, or civic center and (2) provide access that would otherwise be slow, circuitous, or impossible.

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