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From page 16...
... 7 CHAPTER TWO REAR-FACING POSITION: DESCRIPTION, DEPLOYMENT, AND RESEARCH IN EUROPE AND CANADA REAR-FACING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION As it has been deployed in European (Figure 1) and Canadian transit systems, the rear-facing position consists of a minimum rectangular clear floor space, typically 0.75 m (30 in.)
From page 17...
... 8 FIGURE 3 Rear-facing position with movable armrest (shown in up position)
From page 18...
... 9 REAR-FACING POSITION IN EUROPE -- DEPLOYMENT AND RESEARCH Low-floor buses were introduced in Europe in the late 1980s with several objectives: to make access and egress for all passengers easier, faster, and safer to reduce dwell times, to decrease injuries to an aging passenger population from tripping or falling over steps, and to provide easier access for persons with strollers. Wheelchair accessibility was not the original motivation for deployment of lowfloor buses (8,9)
From page 19...
... 10 and one by Kasten (1991) were conducted that explored the specific issue of securement requirements on transit buses (11,12)
From page 20...
... 11 According to German Standard DIN 75 077, "Buses for disabled persons; definitions, requirements, tests," a bulkhead or a restricted or confined space is required as a restraint system that fulfills the safety requirements (13)
From page 21...
... 12 TABLE 1 WHEELCHAIR SECUREMENT TEST RESULTS -- COST 322 Results under Following Conditions Securement Type Facing Direction Braking Acceleration Cornering No securement, brakes only front bad satisfactory bad Four-strap system front good, if straps used good good Sideways with brakes -- satisfactory satisfactory bad Sideways with front wall and strap -- good satisfactory satisfactory Sideways with rear wall and strap -- bad good bad 45˚ to rear rear satisfactory satisfactory bad Vertical panel/bulkhead rear satisfactory good bad Backrest and headrest rear good good bad Backrest, headrest, and aisle support rear good good good Notes: Evaluation criteria -- good, wheelchair stays upright; satisfactory, wheelchair begins rocking, stress on dummy; bad, wheelchair tips, dummy falls. Sources: Dejeammes and Bonicel (17)
From page 22...
... 13 accommodating wheelchairs on standard transit buses. The desire to enhance accessibility for persons with disabilities is a societal concern in Canada, but it is not governed by formal legislative requirements and prescriptive regulations.

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