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Pages 27-42

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From page 27...
... 27 Overview A number of existing technologies can convert biomass feedstocks, such as wood, starchy grains, and oilseeds, into heat, electricity (biopower) , or transportation fuels (biofuels)
From page 28...
... 28 Guidebook for Designing and Managing Rights-of-Way for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Generation watch include dry anaerobic digestion, cellulosic bioethanol, torrefaction, pyrolysis, and gasification. Opportunities for bioenergy feedstock crops will increase as these technologies are further developed and achieve commercial scale.
From page 29...
... The Biomass Energy Market: A Primer for DOTs 29 also combust woody biomass in combination with a fossil fuel, usually coal, in what is called a co-firing plant. Dedicated biomass electric power plants feature many of the same system components as industrial-scale systems except that electric power systems always include a steam turbine to generate electricity.
From page 30...
... 30 Guidebook for Designing and Managing Rights-of-Way for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Generation Direct Combustion Feedstocks Potentially Applicable to Highway ROWs Fast-growing woody biomass species, such as poplar and willow, could potentially be grown in highway ROWs to serve some direct combustion biomass systems, specifically in industrial- and utility-scale direct combustion facilities. Advances in harvesting techniques that improve chip quality may also create opportunities to serve commercial and institutional scale biomass combustion systems.
From page 31...
... The Biomass Energy Market: A Primer for DOTs 31 on the optimal management regime. Poplar biomass yield is generally between two and six dry tons per acre per year.
From page 32...
... 32 Guidebook for Designing and Managing Rights-of-Way for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Generation While willow has been utilized as a feedstock for direct combustion facilities in Northern Europe for more than two decades, in the U.S. its utilization remains largely limited to research and development trials.
From page 33...
... The Biomass Energy Market: A Primer for DOTs 33 Biofuel Feedstocks Potentially Applicable to Highway ROWs A number of common biofuel feedstocks, including starchy cereal grains, such as corn or grain sorghum, and vegetable oils from annual oilseed crops, such as soybeans or canola, could potentially be grown in the highway ROW. However, the primary markets for these crops are regional grain elevators where the ultimate end use is not discernable, making it a challenge to purposefully grow these crops for biofuels.
From page 34...
... 34 Guidebook for Designing and Managing Rights-of-Way for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Generation Corn is a warm season, annual grain grown throughout the continental U.S. in areas receiving 20 or more inches of annual precipitation, though its production is concentrated in the Midwest.
From page 35...
... The Biomass Energy Market: A Primer for DOTs 35 Soybeans Oil from soybeans (Glycine max) is the primary feedstock for biodiesel production in the U.S.
From page 36...
... 36 Guidebook for Designing and Managing Rights-of-Way for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Generation Growing canola in the ROW presents fewer complications than other common biofuel feedstock crops. Canola is less intensively managed than other oilseed and grain crops and its low stature is unlikely to pose a sightline obstruction.
From page 37...
... The Biomass Energy Market: A Primer for DOTs 37 Initial Feasibility Assessment Prior to developing a bioenergy feedstock project, a DOT should assess the technical and economic feasibility of the project concept. The purpose of this assessment is to take a critical and comprehensive look at a prospective project and make an objective determination of whether the project should move forward or be abandoned until conditions improve.
From page 38...
... 38 Guidebook for Designing and Managing Rights-of-Way for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Generation electricity production. The list also includes wood pellet producers.
From page 39...
... The Biomass Energy Market: A Primer for DOTs 39 Identify Feedstock Requirements, Pricing, and Level of Interest A DOT interested in developing a bioenergy feedstock project should compile a list of facilities in its state from these resources and seek to identify those facilities that directly accept external feedstocks, or in the case of oilseed biodiesel would be interested in developing a collaborative project. Calling on each facility directly and surveying it on its feedstock sourcing strategy can accomplish this.
From page 40...
... 40 Guidebook for Designing and Managing Rights-of-Way for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Generation this increase equipment operating time and expense but it also tends to result in greater inputs like seed, fertilizers, etc., because of more overlap areas needed to completely plant and harvest the field. Contiguous fields, or at least those in close proximity to one another, are more efficient to farm because moving and setting up equipment between fields takes time and expense.
From page 41...
... The Biomass Energy Market: A Primer for DOTs 41 It is vital that initial estimates of costs and revenues in the analysis are conservative since at this point in the project analysis much uncertainty about the ultimate design of the project remains. Those projects that cannot demonstrate profitability or are only marginally viable are not likely to withstand additional scrutiny and should not be pursued further.
From page 42...
... 42 Guidebook for Designing and Managing Rights-of-Way for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Generation Project Revenues Project revenues include both the value of the sale of the biomass feedstocks and potential savings from avoided or reduced maintenance costs that might be realized as a result of project implementation. Estimated yield -- The quantity of harvested material per acre.

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