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2. Independent Verification and Validation of Critical Software
Pages 29-38

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From page 29...
... The independent technical activities conducted by the V&V organizations in parallel with the development team's efforts generates a path of constant feedback that ensures that quality and safety are built into Me system from the beginning.
From page 30...
... ORIENTATION IV&V activities typically focus on either the software development process or He products produced by that process. Process-onented IV&V typically involves participation in systems and software requirements reviews, design and code inspections, and test monitoring and audits.
From page 31...
... This comprehensive approach includes a close interaction among all members of He software and system development and review teams that continually provides feedback and recommendations into the development process to improve both the process and the product. Due to limited resources or other constraints, a comprehensive IV&V may not be feasible.
From page 32...
... The IV&V team is outside the development contractor's organization and is typically a contractor hired by Me customer or, sometimes, a team from within the customer's own organization. Most importantly, Me IV&V team reports to a part of the customer's organization that is not directly involved wad the development of the software, although, typically, a close working relationship is formed between the IV&V and development teams to ensure that IV&V results and recommendations are integrated rapidly back into the development process.
From page 33...
... However, like internal IV&V, the embedded IV&V team is subject to peer pressure and runs the risk of unconsciously approving faulty group decisions when a truly independent solution is required. ~ NASA uses the term embedded to describe the entire software development process, including the internal activities of the development contractors and the activities of the venous NASA organizations that are involved in reviewing and approving changes to the software, but excluding the IV&V activities of Intermetrics and Smith Advanced Technology.
From page 34...
... 34 SPACE SHUT FLIGHT SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES A "higher authonty" within the customer Customer's system/software ~ — development orgar~zat~on a ~ Close relationship i . ~3 between developers and IV&V Software development contractors Customer's quality assurance organization IV&V contractor Figure 2-la Classical IV&V is characterized by the IV&V team reporting to a different part of the customer's organization Han that responsible for the software development.
From page 35...
... INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION Ad VALIDATION OF CRlTlCAL SOFTWARE Customer T Software development contractors "Prime Integrator" (may be a part of the customer's organization or a contractor) Close relationship between developers _ and {V&V_ _ IV&V contractor Figure Sib Modified IV&V has reduced technical and managenal independence because, even though they are not the same company, the IV&V and development teams report to the same level of management (the prime integrators.
From page 36...
... ~ ;, I Development team ,j,l Software Quality Assurance Close interaction IV&V team Figure 2-Ic Internal IV&Vis performed by the development contractor, but the IV&V and development teams report to different management levels within the company.
From page 37...
... . IV&V team Figure 2-~d Embedded IV&V does not include any of the independence parameters.
From page 38...
... The development contractors perform a rigorous internal IV&V to assure that they are following their own established processes correctly and that the delivered product meets the given requirements. The {V&V contractors, Intermetrics and Smith Advanced Technology, report to NASA at He same level as the development contractors.


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