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Pages 9-12

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From page 9...
... 9 chapter three MODELING COMPLEXITY RIDERSHIP In investigating the role of air and HSR systems as competitors and complementary modes, understanding ridership is a crucial component. Several studies cite the importance of accurate ridership forecasts to understand the environmental outcomes of future long-distance transport systems (Burgess 2011; Wang and Sanders 2011; Behrens and Pels 2012; Chester and Horvath 2012)
From page 10...
... 10 rail operators, classic airlines and low cost airlines on each route." Although it is not an environmental impact study, it does address issues of market share and ridership using historic data reported by air and rail operators. As shown in Figure 3, the travel time on HSR is a strong determinant of rail market share when compared with air transport.
From page 11...
... 11 tions. For understanding the impacts of air or HSR systems on regional emissions inventories, energy, emissions, and noise results are often presented per vehicle-mile traveled.
From page 12...
... 12 the long-distance air and HSR vehicle or passenger trip and exclude door-to-door access/egress. The overwhelming majority of the literature falls in the line-haul category, with very few studies drawing the system boundary around the door-to-door category.

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