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Pages 43-65

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From page 43...
... STEP 3 DETERMINE GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Step 3 introduces specific disaster scenarios and operational priorities and strategies to help meet objectives for evacuation. TASK 3.1 FIRST DETERMINE OPERATIONAL PRIORITIES Determining operational priorities is the precursor to setting goals and objectives.
From page 44...
... Page 46 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives • What transit agencies can deliver and when • How different modes and public and private entities can work together for greater impact • The types of support transportation agencies can provide, from population and traffic information to cones and variable message signs • The likely impacts of various decisions, such as the traffic congestion impacts of an evacuation that is not staged In the event of an actual disaster, emergency managers will then be able to make better, more informed decisions on public protection actions, for example, selective evacuations with selective sheltering-in-place. (For special event planning, the scenario is the planned special event.)
From page 45...
... Page 47 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives Feature Scenario 1: Port Dirty Nuclear Explosion Scenario 2: Highway Collapse/Chlorine Gas Leak Weapon Dirty nuclear bomb, explosives Explosives, chlorine gas First Target Ship/port Highway overpass Second Target Highway overpass Highway rail overpass, train carrying hazardous materials Time of Year Summer, July 4 Summer Time of Day Morning rush hour Evening rush hour Special Features Holiday travel Outdoor festival near second incident scene Modes Affected Freight (port operations) , highway, and transit Freight (rail operations)
From page 46...
... Page 48 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives NATIONAL PLANNING SCENARIOS While developing scenarios, refer to the National Planning Scenarios. The current version is available on ODP Secure Portal (https://odp.esportals.com)
From page 47...
... Page 49 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives Identify potential traffic, transit, intermodal, and interjurisdictional challenges and opportunities presented by the scenario Using information gathered in Step 2, analyze the demographics against the transportation network. See Figures 3-4 and 3-5.
From page 48...
... Page 50 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives Scale and Patterns of Movement First and foremost, a large-scale evacuation scenario will place great strain on the transportation network's ability to handle a large volume of evacuees and vehicles. Traffic volumes and patterns of movement may differ significantly from what the traveling public and those tasked with traffic management at the state, county, and local levels have experienced.
From page 49...
... Page 51 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives available transportation resources by corridor, decisions can be made as to how to distribute evacuees among modes. Likely candidates for evacuation modes and networks include: • Local roadways • Highways • Private vehicles • On-road transit (bus and paratransit vehicles, including private sector overthe-road coaches and school buses)
From page 50...
... Page 52 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives Contraflow Contraflow lanes typically do not significantly degrade traffic safety, because they are usually well controlled. There are significant differences between contraflow operation on urban arterial roadways and long sections of interstate freeways during hurricane evacuations.
From page 51...
... Page 53 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives • How to deliver evacuees to final destinations • How to assign lane usage on interstates and other primary highways • How to stage evacuations to minimize roadway congestion • Whether to dedicate lanes for high-occupancy vehicles and any other vehicles required to move certain special population groups • Whether and how to establish contraflow lanes An integral component of the evacuation traffic management plan is the selection of tactics to move traffic more efficiently. The challenge lies in identifying those tactics that provide the greatest increase in carrying capacity while imposing realistic time and resource requirements for implementation (King County 2008)
From page 52...
... Page 54 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives The checklists outline a three-part strategy that includes actions to: • Improve roadway capacity and efficiency • Prioritize, reorient, and supplement transit service in several modes • Manage transportation demand with actions directed at both vehicles and passengers These checklists can help emergency, transportation, and transit planners and managers identify the agencies and transportation-related actions that will be critical in an evacuation. Note: Many of these strategies and coordination actions will also be useful for planned special events.
From page 53...
... Page 55 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives • Prevent people from entering the evacuation area and becoming an additional burden to the road system • Properly plan evacuation routes to provide for the best balance of flow and eliminate or minimize gridlock • Maximize use of roadways early in the event to reduce traffic load later in the event (when smoke and panic will hamper evacuation efforts) • Provide proper guidance to motorists through the use of uniformed officers, public works, and/or mutual aid employees along with appropriate signage • Ensure timely response by pre-staging necessary resources, such as changeable message boards, signs, uniformed officers, tow trucks, and public works/mutual aid personnel As each objective is accomplished resources supporting that objective can then be shifted to other goals or objectives.
From page 54...
... Page 56 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives STEP THREE -- TOOLS TOOL 3.1: EVACUATION OPERATIONAL PRIORITIES AND GOALS AND OBJECTIVES DISCUSSION GUIDE -- "THOUGHT STARTERS" PURPOSE: This tool can encourage advanced thinking about mass evacuation before a planning session when multiple stakeholders are involved, including public agencies, CBOs and FBOs, and multiple jurisdictions. This tool focuses on the objectives for Step 3 of the planning process.
From page 55...
... Page 57 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives TOOL 3.2: TRANSPORTATION COORDINATION SPECTRUM OF CONSIDERATIONS FOR ACCESS AND FUNCTIONAL NEEDS POPULATIONS OBJECTIVE: Ensure that all evacuees have access to appropriate transportation support and can maintain independence in the least restrictive shelter accommodations possible for their individual situation. PURPOSE: This table helps identify and classify evacuees with access and functional needs, the types of transportation they may need, and potential destinations in an evacuation.
From page 56...
... Page 58 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives TOOL 3.2, TRANSPORTATION COORDINATION SPECTRUM OF CONSIDERATIONS FOR ACCESS AND FUNCTIONAL NEEDS POPULATIONS Level Types of Access and Functional Needs Sheltering Transportation Mode or Vehicle Independent Travel and trans- Self-selected: private home, Mass transit (buses, trains) fer without help hotel or general shelter or personal autos Minor assistance not re- Persons who are deaf or Self-selected: private home, Mass transit (buses, trains)
From page 57...
... Page 59 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives TOOL 3.3: PRIMARY ENTITIES AND TRANSPORTATION MODES INVOLVED IN EVACUATION OBJECTIVE: Ensure that all modes and appropriate entities are included in planning for evacuations. PURPOSE: Identify the roles that entities can play in evacuations in either providing transportation resources or identifying community needs or both.
From page 58...
... Page 60 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives TOOL 3.3, PRIMARY ENTITIES AND TRANSPORTATION MODES INVOLVED IN EVACUATION Entity/Mode Role in Providing Trans-portation Resources Role in Identifying Community Needs Issues to Consider; Pros/Cons Rail transit Trains can provide transportation to the community along fixed rail lines Data on regular patterns of train patrons could be useful for evacuation planning Electric powered systems may fail during an emergency. Systems can provide high occupancy but limited geographic flexibility Paratransit Vehicles provide transportation to people with access and functional needs related to personal mobility Data on regular patterns of paratransit patrons would be very useful for evacuation planning Transition from regular service to emergency service needs careful planning and coordination.
From page 59...
... Page 61 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives TOOL 3.4: TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS COORDINATION CHECKLISTS OBJECTIVE: Ensure that all appropriate "tools" in the traffic management, transit operations, and travel demand management "toolboxes" are considered in planning for and responding to a disaster that require evacuation. Most will require inter-regional coordination.
From page 60...
... Page 62 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives TOOL 3.5: TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES SUPPORTING EVACUATION OBJECTIVE: Use traffic control devices–signs, signals, and pavement markings–to communicate operational guidance, promote safety, and enhance the efficiency of evacuating traffic streams. PURPOSE: Traffic control devices, whether conventional Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD)
From page 61...
... Page 63 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives SIGNS The MUTCD includes a section specifically dedicated to signing for emergency management. Chapter 2N of the manual includes guidance on the design, size, and placement of these devices, including evacuation route signing (FHWA 2009)
From page 62...
... Page 64 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives To accommodate these drivers, some agencies, such as the Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) , use fold down signs adjacent to contraflow lanes.
From page 63...
... Page 65 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives but they have been developed and adapted based on broad guidance for local use. Figure 3-12 shows an example of pavement markings used to designate shoulders as an additional travel lane.
From page 64...
... Page 66 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives The Florida Department of Transportation has developed another example of evacuation-related pavement markings for placement in the vicinity of interchanges along Interstate 10 between Jacksonville, Florida, and Tallahassee, Florida. As shown in Figure 3-13, these markings are applied to the inside shoulders near interchanges to show the interchange (mile marker)
From page 65...
... Page 67 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives maintained normal, non-emergency, peak-hour signal timings to service cross-street traffic, but this approach has led to congestion, long queues, and delays as well as the potential for prohibiting full clearance of the hazard zone. To address these issues, some state agencies now plan to use flashing yellow in conjunction with police enforcement to permit cross-street traffic maneuvers.

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