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Pages 8-22

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From page 8...
... This chapter provides additional detail regarding biodiesel use from the vehicle perspective in terms of emissions and engine characteristics and from the fuel management perspective in terms of procurement specifications, blending, delivery, storage, and incentives. The reader with a more casual interest in biodiesel may want to pass over this chapter and return to it when more detail is required.
From page 9...
... 9typically reduced with in-engine modifications; however, the apparent technology to meet 2010 NOx requirements is an after treatment device called selective catalytic reduction, which is used in conjunction with the PM filter. Another technology is NOx adsorbers, a type of catalytic converter coated with a precious metal called zeolite.
From page 10...
... health effects submitted to the EPA under the Clean Air Act (5)
From page 11...
... 11 40-ft buses, one with standard diesel propulsion and the other with diesel hybrid-electric. Testing took place in October 2006 using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer and two drive cycles: Orange County, California, and Houston Metro.
From page 12...
... Company evaluated nine identical 40-ft transit buses operating on diesel and B20 biodiesel in transit service by the Denver RTD (13)
From page 13...
... 13 In particular, additional emissions research is needed on engines equipped with DPFs installed to meet 2007 EPA standards, and NOx reduction technologies such as selective catalytic reduction, NOx adsorbers, and other such equipment needed to meet 2010 EPA standards. Additional testing with DPFs using standardized duty cycles may show less of an effect on PM emissions with biodiesel.
From page 14...
... engine warranty. This policy is no different from Cummins' position with regard to regular diesel fuel.
From page 15...
... 15 serious conditions that will develop as temperatures fall. Concerning biodiesel use, it is essential to remember that the actual temperature of the fuel and the ambient air temperature remain above the cloud point assigned to the fuel.
From page 16...
... agencies could also establish campaigns to replace affected components. FUEL MANAGEMENT Introduction This section will address steps needed to ensure that the procurement, delivery, storage, and use of biodiesel are managed effectively to deliver optimum results.
From page 17...
... 17 determining characteristic is the fatty acid chains contained in biodiesel feedstocks, which are saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated (4)
From page 18...
... guage in their specifications to ensure that biodiesel be transported in such a way that it does not present a problem to the end user. As with much of the material provided here on biodiesel, delivery of B100 is more critical than lower blends.
From page 19...
... 19 known as "wet hose" filling. The last two options can provide benefits to agencies wanting to test biodiesel in a select number of buses before introducing it to their bulk storage tanks.
From page 20...
... Storage Temperatures The bigger concern with B100 storage is its tendency to gel more quickly relative to diesel and other biodiesel blends. Whether B100 or a blend, the temperature at which the fuel can be safely stored without gelling depends on the local climate.
From page 21...
... 21 Material Compatibility The same material compatibility concerns discussed earlier for engines also apply to facility fuel storage and dispensing equipment. As with engines, most of the compatibility issues involve the use of B100; B20 and lower blends are not as serious.
From page 22...
... provides information on tax benefits and other incentives at www.biodiesel.org. Although each state has various requirements, New York is used here as an example of how the use of biofuels is being encouraged.

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