Skip to main content

Currently Skimming:


Pages 179-220

The Chapter Skim interface presents what we've algorithmically identified as the most significant single chunk of text within every page in the chapter.
Select key terms on the right to highlight them within pages of the chapter.


From page 179...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-1 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment CHAPTER 5. SYSTEM PACKAGING, INTEGRATION, AND ASSESSMENT INTRODUCTION BRT is an integrated system of services, facilities, and amenities that is designed to improve speed, reliability, and identity.
From page 180...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-2 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide for example, should have the support of the transit agency responsible for operating the BRT service. Similarly, operational treatments such as bus lanes, TSP, and queue bypass lanes should have the support of the street transportation agencies.
From page 181...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-3 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment EXHIBIT 5-1 Packaging BRT Elements - Modest-Demand and Modest-Cost BRT System Services Stations Vehicles Running Way Systems Primarily local Simple stops No special treatment Mixed traffic Radios, onboard fare collection Mixed limitedstop, local Super stops Special signage Dedicated arterial curb lanes, competing turns allowed AVL for schedule adherence All-stop (local) , mixed local/express On-line and offline stations, significant parking for transit patrons Dedicated vehicles, special livery Dedicated freeway median lanes, merge/weave access/egress ITS passenger information, fare collection Point-to-point express Transfer/transit centers Dedicated vehicles, uniquely specified (e.g., double-articulated buses, hybrid propulsion)
From page 182...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-4 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Exhibit 5-3 identifies the allocation of capital costs by BRT component for several existing and under construction BRT systems, illustrating different packaging of components. EXHIBIT 5-3 Allocation of Capital Costs by BRT Component BRT System Total Development Costs (millions)
From page 183...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-5 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment ASSESSING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE Assessing BRT system performance requires estimating travel times, service frequencies, ridership benefits, and development costs. This section brings together key performance and cost parameters and shows how they may be used to assess the effect of a given BRT system.
From page 184...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-6 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide EXHIBIT 5-4 Representative BRT Component Development Costs Component Unit Cost/Unit Running Way Off-street busway At-grade Grade-separated Elevated Tunnel Per route-mile Per route-mile Per route-mile Per route-mile $5 million $13 million $50 million $200 million On-street Median arterial busway Bus lane - new construction Bus lane - striping lane Per route-mile Per route-mile Per route-mile $4 million $25 million $100,000 Transit Preferential Treatments Queue bypass Parking removal Use of right-turn lane Added lane Per approach Per approach Per approach Negligible Negligible $300,000 Curb extension Per extension $60,000 TSP Per intersection $30,000 Special transit phase Per intersection $10,000 Stations Typical Basic Enhanced Per station Per station $21,000*
From page 185...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-7 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment EXHIBIT 5-5 Typical Effects of BRT Running Way Components Component Estimated Effects Savings Compared to Base* Comments Elevated 40 mph, 1.5 min/mi 4.5 min/mi Assumed speed Some grade separation 35 mph, 1.7 min/mi 4.3 min/mi Reflects wide station spacing Off-street At-grade 25 mph, 2.4 min/mi 3.6 min/mi Median arterial busway 13.3 mph, 4.5 min/mi 1.5 min/mi Assumes no change in station spacing On-street Bus lane (new construction or striping)
From page 186...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-8 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide EXHIBIT 5-7 Typical Effects of Door Channels and Fare Collection Methods on Passenger Service Times Situation Single-Door Boarding Time (seconds/passenger) 1 Swipe or dip card 4.5 Exact change 4.0 Smart card 3.5 Single ticket or token 3.5 Pre-payment2 2.5 Situation Single-Door Alighting Time (seconds/passenger)
From page 187...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-9 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Analysis Steps and Procedures Key analysis steps in estimating the costs and effects of various BRT options are shown in Exhibit 5-10 and Exhibit 5-11. These steps should be applied, as appropriate, to BRT and local bus services in the same corridor.
From page 188...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-10 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide EXHIBIT 5-10 Key BRT Assessment Steps Step Items to Analyze 1. Define base conditions.
From page 189...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-11 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment SERVICE FREQUENCY Number/type Dw ell time - Fare collection - Door conf iguration - Floor height Type (on/off street) Type of priorities RUNNING TIME RIDERSHIP + Additional ridership gains from special BRT features ENHANCED RIDERSHIP STOPS RUNNING WAY NOTE: Additional ridership from population and economic growth EXHIBIT 5-11 BRT Ridership Analysis Concept Allocate Base Ridership to BRT and Local Bus Service The method of allocating existing bus riders to BRT and local bus service in the BRT corridor will depend on (1)
From page 190...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-12 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Estimate BRT Ridership BRT ridership for the base (and future) years should be estimated through the traditional trip generation, trip distribution, mode split, and trip assignment process wherever BRT will run on a new alignment such as a busway.
From page 191...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-13 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment There usually should be at least two to three spare vehicles, or 10 to 20 percent of the fleet, whichever is greater. Estimate Effects of Growth BRT ridership can be expected to grow in future years as a result of population and employment growth and greater acceptance of the BRT service.
From page 192...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-14 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide 9. Sixty spaces per bus were assumed for each scenario (articulated buses)
From page 193...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-15 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Scenario 1: Grade-Separated Busway Connecting CBD to Park-andRide Lot The description and assumptions for this scenario are shown in Exhibit 5-12 and Exhibit 5-13. Exhibit 5-14 describes the detailed analysis and Exhibit 5-15 gives the estimated costs by BRT feature.
From page 194...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-16 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide EXHIBIT 5-14 Analysis - Scenario 1 Item Analysis Existing Condition:  1 mi at 6 mph (10 min/mi) = 10 min (CBD mixed traffic)
From page 195...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-17 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment 2. Estimate additional ridership generated by BRT features.
From page 196...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-18 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide EXHIBIT 5-15 Estimated Development Costs - Scenario 1 Item Units Unit Cost Total Cost Busway 14 miles $13 million/mile $182 million Bus lane 1 mile $100,000/mile $100,000 Stations - busway 10 stations $2.5 million/station $25 million Stations - CBD 3 stations $60,000/station $180,000 Passing lane 2 lane-miles1 $2.7 million/lane-mile $5.4 million Specialized, articulated BRT vehicles 21 vehicles $1.3 million/vehicle $27.3 million Off-board fare collection 28 ticket vending machines2 $65,000/machine $1.8 million Station information 26 locations3 $6,000/location $156,000 Vehicle information 21 vehicles $4,000/vehicle $84,000 Total (2004 dollars) $242.0 million 1 (10 stations x 2 directions)
From page 197...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-19 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment EXHIBIT 5-17 Key Assumptions of BRT Development Scenario 2 Computed Results Feature Existing Service (Base) Local BRT Daily Ridership 20,000 10,000 15,699 Stops 90 90 17 Dwell/Stop 15 sec 15 sec 20 sec1 10-15 sec2 Frequency 8 min 10-min minimum 6 min Speed 6 mph CBD; 10 mph elsewhere 9.8 mph 20.9 mph2 One-Way Travel Time 94 min 92 min 43 min Fare Collection On board On board On board Vehicle Conventional Conventional Specialized TSP No No Along busway Passenger Information Stations Vehicles No No No No Yes Yes Branding No No Yes Development Costs N/A N/A $109.4 million 1 The 20-second dwell time for BRT assumes no change in fare collection or door channels available, in comparison to the existing service.
From page 198...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-20 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide 1. Apply travel time elasticity factors to BRT: 12 1211 2 )
From page 199...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-21 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment EXHIBIT 5-19 Estimated Development Costs - Scenario 2 Item Units Unit Cost Total Cost Busway 14 miles $5 million/mile $70.0 million Bus lane 1 mile $100,000/mile $100,000 Stations - busway 14 stations $150,000/station $2.1 million Stations - CBD 3 stations $60,000/station $180,000 Passing lanes 2.8 lane-miles1 $2.7 million/lane-mile $7.6 million Specialized, articulated BRT vehicles 20 vehicles $1.3 million/vehicle $26.0 million Off-board fare collection 36 ticket vending machines2 $65,000/machine $2.3 million Station information 34 locations3 $6,000/location $204,000 Vehicle information 20 vehicles $4,000/vehicle $80,000 TSP 28 intersections $30,000/intersection $840,000 Total (2004 dollars) $109.4 million 1 (14 stations x 2 directions)
From page 200...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-22 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide EXHIBIT 5-21 Key Assumptions of BRT Development Scenario 3 Feature Existing Service (Base) Computed Results (BRT)
From page 201...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-23 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Proposed Condition:  1 mi (CBD) at 7 min/mi = 7 min  Start with 6-mph speed  1.5-mph (2 min/mi)
From page 202...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-24 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide 3. Estimate additional ridership generated by BRT features.
From page 203...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-25 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment EXHIBIT 5-23 Estimated Development Costs - Scenario 3 Item Units Unit Cost Total Cost Bus lane 1 mile $0.5 million/mile $500,000 Median arterial busway 5 miles $4 million/mile $20 million At-grade busway 5 miles $5 million/mile $25 million Stations - CBD 3 stations $60,000/station $180,000 Stations - median arterial busway 10 stations $150,000/station $1.5 million Stations - at-grade busway 5 stations $150,000/station $750,000 Stations - mixed traffic 4 stations $60,000/station $240,000 Passing lanes (busway) 1.0 lane-mile1 $2.7 million/lane-mile $2.7 million Stylized articulated BRT vehicles 40 vehicles $780,000/vehicle $31.2 million Off-board fare collection 6 ticket vending machines2 $65,000/machine $390,000 Station information 44 locations3 $6,000/location $264,000 Vehicle information 40 vehicles $4,000/vehicle $160,000 TSP 46 intersections $30,000/intersection $1.4 million Total (2004 dollars)
From page 204...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-26 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide CBD BUS LANE (5 MILES, 10 STATIONS)
From page 205...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-27 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Proposed Condition - BRT:  1 mi (CBD) at 7 min/mi = 7 min  Start with 6-mph speed  1.5-mph (2 min/mi)
From page 206...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-28 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide 2a. Estimate the proportion of BRT riders who would save time by taking the first bus (BRT or local)
From page 207...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-29 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Turnover is assumed to be 1.80.
From page 208...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-30 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide at $12.5 million. The cost savings over Scenario 4 results from not rebuilding the bus lane.
From page 209...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-31 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Proposed Condition - Local:  Local buses would also benefit from a bus-only lane.
From page 210...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-32 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide 2a. Estimate the proportion of BRT riders who would save time by taking the first bus (BRT or local)
From page 211...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-33 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Turnover is assumed to be 1.80. 354%60%10 80.1 619,10 =××=P to 363%60%10 80.1 886,10 =××=P At 60 passengers per bus, six are needed in the maximum load section (with 10-minute headways)
From page 212...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-34 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide CBD 0 OF 6 SIGNALS WITH PRIORITY MIXED TRAFFIC (7 MILES, 14 STATIONS)
From page 213...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-35 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Proposed Condition 2 - BRT:  1 mi at 7.8 min/mi = 7.8 min (CBD)  The 7.8-min/mi speed reflects a base travel time of 3.3 min/mi and +4.5 min/mi for traffic delays (because traffic signals are more frequent than bus stops)
From page 214...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-36 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide 3. Estimate additional ridership generated by BRT features.
From page 215...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-37 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment EXHIBIT 5-35 Estimated Development Costs - Scenario 6 Item Units Unit Cost Total Cost Stations - CBD (enhanced) 3 stations $60,000/station $180,000 Stations - other (enhanced)
From page 216...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-38 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Exhibit 5-37 shows the likely sources of the anticipated increases in BRT ridership for each of the six BRT scenarios. The anticipated future BRT ridership is also "normalized" to a "base ridership" of 10,000 daily riders.
From page 217...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-39 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment The anticipated time savings are related to estimated development costs in Exhibit 5-39. As development costs increase, there is a corresponding gain in the travel time saved.
From page 218...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-40 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide The information contained in these exhibits can be developed for any series of BRT proposals for a given corridor. While the numbers and relationships shown are specific to the six scenarios analyzed, several patterns emerge: • As development costs increase, there is a consistent reduction in travel times and a growth in BRT ridership.
From page 219...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 5-41 System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment EXHIBIT 5-41 Allocation of Ridership between Local Bus and BRT (or Limited-Stop) Service Street % of Riders Using BRT Wilshire Boulevard (Los Angeles)
From page 220...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide System Packaging, Integration, and Assessment Page 5-42 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide This page is intentionally blank.

Key Terms



This material may be derived from roughly machine-read images, and so is provided only to facilitate research.
More information on Chapter Skim is available.