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From page 61...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-1 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts CHAPTER 4. COMPONENT FEATURES, COSTS, AND IMPACTS INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the characteristics, costs, and impacts of different BRT components and contains guidelines for developing and assessing individual components.
From page 62...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-2 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide • Implementability (institutional factors) • Analysis tools (analogy/synthesis, analytical modeling, simulation)
From page 63...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-3 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-2 Generalized Effects of BRT Running Way Elements System Performance Element Travel Time Savings Reliability Identity and Image Safety and Security Capacity System Benefits Running Way Segregation Types:  Mixed-flow lanes with queue jumps  Designated (reversed) arterial lanes  At-grade exclusive lane (transitway)
From page 64...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-4 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide SOURCE: www.gobrt.org EXHIBIT 4-4 Grade-Separated Busway (Pittsburgh) SOURCE: Kittelson & Associates, Inc.
From page 65...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-5 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts SOURCE: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. EXHIBIT 4-7 Curb Bus Lane (Los Angeles)
From page 66...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-6 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide SOURCE: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. EXHIBIT 4-9 Bus-Only Street (Portland, OR)
From page 67...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-7 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts • Are suitable rights-of-way available for busway development, and can these rights-of-way effectively connect with the city center and other major activity centers? • Are arterial streets and roadways wide enough to provide segregated median BRT running ways?
From page 68...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-8 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide BRT on city streets should use the "fastest" streets available wherever possible, because bus speeds correlate closely with automobile speeds for any given stop frequency and dwell times. Transit-sensitive traffic engineering treatments are essential.
From page 69...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-9 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Scale of Application Busways may connect the city center with outlying parts of the urban area (radial busways) or with the terminus of a rail transit line.
From page 70...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-10 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Locations in order of desirability are (1) separate right-of-way, (2)
From page 71...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-11 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Estimated Costs Busway development costs include land acquisition, construction, and engineering. These costs vary by running way location, type, design features, and the type of terrain traversed.
From page 72...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-12 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide EXHIBIT 4-15 Reported Busway Land Acquisition Costs (U.S. Dollars)
From page 73...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-13 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-17 Busway Construction Costs by Type (U.S. Dollars)
From page 74...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-14 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide EXHIBIT 4-19 Reported and Anticipated Busway Speeds Facility Express Service Speed (miles/hour) All-Stop Service Speed (miles/hour)
From page 75...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-15 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Cost-Ridership Considerations The number of passengers using BRT services on a busway should bear a reasonable relationship to the development costs incurred. Ideally, the travel time benefits, measured by the value of time saved for bus passengers, should exceed the annualized development and operating/maintenance costs.
From page 76...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-16 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide EXHIBIT 4-23 Reported Land Development Benefits along Busways System Benefits Pittsburgh East Busway 59 new developments within a 1,500-ft radius of station; $302 million in land development benefits of which $275 million was new construction and 80% is clustered at stations Ottawa Transitway $1 billion (Canadian) in new construction at Transitway stations Adelaide, Australia, Guided Busway Tea Tree Gully area is becoming an urban village.
From page 77...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-17 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Conditions of Application Bus lanes require (1) a sufficient frequency of buses, (2)
From page 78...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-18 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide EXHIBIT 4-24 Integrated BRT Systems with Arterial Bus Lanes Percentage of Running Way Curb Lanes Interior Lanes Median Lanes or Transitway City BRT System Street <50% >50% <50% >50% <50% >50% Boston Silver Line Phase 1 Washington St X X Las Vegas MAX N Las Vegas Blvd X Los Angeles Rapid Bus Wilshire Blvd X Orlando Lymmo Magnolia St/ Livingston St X 1 Vancouver, BC 98B Granville St/ Road B X X York, ON VIVA X 2 Ottawa Transitway Albert St/ Slater St CBD CBD Cleveland 3 Euclid Ave X X Eugene 3 EMX Various X 1 Both directions on one side of respective streets 2 Queue jumpers using right-turn bays 3 Under construction SOURCE: TCRP A-23A project team Estimated Costs Initial capital and ongoing operating and maintenance costs depend on the "before" situation for the particular corridor in question and the precise nature of what is to be implemented. If the proposed bus lane is to be taken from an existing general traffic or parking lane, initial and ongoing costs should be minimal; however, if the addition of a bus lane involves procurement of new right-of-way and new construction, initial costs could be substantial while the operating/maintenance costs for the new dedicated transit facility will be modest.
From page 79...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-19 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-25 Range of Capital Costs for Adding New Bus Lanes Type of New Arterial Transit Lanes Cost Range (Exclusive of Right-ofway and with Uncolored Pavement) Curb or off-set lanes $2 to $3 million per lane mile Median transitway $5 to $10 million per lane mile SOURCE: CBRT (1)
From page 80...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-20 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide • A small amount of time savings mainly results in passenger benefits. • As the travel time savings increase, the bus lane may reduce fleet requirements and operating costs.
From page 81...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-21 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-27 Observed Travel Time Savings with Arterial Bus Lanes City Street Savings (Minutes per Mile) Los Angeles Wilshire Blvd 0.1 to 0.2 (a.m.)
From page 82...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-22 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide when space permits, (2) limiting the hours of curb bus lane operation (e.g., to the CBD during the morning peak and from the CBD during the afternoon peak)
From page 83...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-23 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-29 Estimated Travel Time Rate Reduction with Arterial Bus Lanes -- Generalized Based on Analogy Location Minutes per Mile Reduction Highly congested CBD 3 to 5 Typical CBD 1 to 2 Typical Arterial 0.5 to 1 SOURCE: Bus Rapid Transit Options for Densely Developed Areas (8) EXHIBIT 4-30 Estimated Travel Time Rate Reduction with Arterial Bus Lanes - For Specific Cases Based on Analogy Item Case A Case B Case C Case D Case E Initial Speed (mph)
From page 84...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-24 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 Minutes per Mile M in ut es p er M ile w ith C ur b B us L an e without Bus Lane with Bus Lane SOURCE: TCRP A-23A research EXHIBIT 4-32 Time Savings with Curb Bus Lane The bottom half of Exhibit 4-30 and Exhibit 4-32 show the time savings in minutes per mile resulting from installing a bus lane. The percentage of time saved declines from about 33% at the lowest initial speeds to about 20% at speeds that are typical for an arterial bus (or BRT route)
From page 85...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-25 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-33 Dimensions of Overall Bus Lane Evaluation Proposed Current Bus Service Levels and Types # of General Traffic Lanes # of Parking Lanes and Controls Level of General Traffic Congestion Intersection Controls Critical Intersection Turning Movements Level and type of bus service (e.g., local v. express)
From page 86...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-26 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Two characteristics differentiate TSP from emergency vehicle preemption. First, the phase is served in its "normal" position in the signal cycle (as opposed to preemption, where the signal controller immediately brings up the preempt phase)
From page 87...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-27 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts signal system that occur whether or not a bus is present. Strategies can range from simple changes in intersection signal timing to systemwide retiming to facilitate bus operations.
From page 88...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-28 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Scale of Application TSP can be applied at a single intersection experiencing extensive bus delay or at a number of intersections along a corridor, whether or not a coordinated signal system is in effect. TSP is an integral part of arterial BRT operations and is applied in most of the cities either operating or developing BRT systems.
From page 89...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-29 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-37 TSP and Preemption Strategy by Agency Agency City Ea rl y G re en (R ed Tr u nc at io n ) G re en Ex te n si o n P ha se In se rt io n P re em pt io n O th er AC Transit Oakland, CA X X Ben Franklin Transit Richland, WA X X Calgary Transit Calgary, AL X X LYNX Orlando, FL X City of Glendale Glendale, CA X X Charlotte Area Transit Charlotte, NC X Houston METRO Houston, TX X X X Illinois DOT (RTA)
From page 90...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-30 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide used, costs can be less than $5,000 per intersection, but costs can increase to $20,000 to $30,000 per intersection if equipment needs to be replaced. Costs for transit detection vary significantly based on the ultimate technology chosen.
From page 91...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-31 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-40 ITS America's Summary of TSP Benefits and Impacts Location Transit Type Number of Intersections TSP Strategy Benefit/Impact Portland, OR: Tualatin Valley Hwy Bus 10 Early green, green extension Bus travel time savings = 1.4-6.4%. Average bus signal delay reduction = 20%.
From page 92...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-32 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Travel Time Travel time savings associated with TSP in North America and Europe have ranged from 2% to 18%, depending on the length of corridor, particular traffic conditions, bus operations, and the TSP strategy deployed. A reduction of 8% to 12% has been typical.
From page 93...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-33 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Analysis Tools Field surveys and both analytical and simulation modeling can be used to estimate the reduction in bus delay and, hence, reductions in overall travel time associated with the application of TSP. A description of the potential application of surveys and simulation follows.
From page 94...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-34 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide SOURCE: TCRP A-23A project team EXHIBIT 4-41 Signalized Intersection Delay (60-Second Cycle and 50% Effective Green) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Volume-to-Capacity Ratio D el ay , s ec on ds p er v eh ic le Total Delay; G/C = 0.4 Total Delay; G/C = 0.5 Total Delay; G/C = 0.6 G/C = 0.40 G/C = 0.50 G/C = 0.60 SOURCE: TCRP A-23A project team EXHIBIT 4-42 Signalized Intersection Delay (60-Second Cycle and Range of Effective Green)
From page 95...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-35 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Volume-to-Capacity Ratio D el ay , s ec on ds p er v eh ic le Total Delay; G/C = 0.4 Total Delay; G/C = 0.5 Total Delay; G/C = 0.6 G/C = 0.40 G/C = 0.50 G/C = 0.60 SOURCE: TCRP A-23A project team EXHIBIT 4-43 Signalized Intersection Delay (90-Second Cycle and Range of Effective Green) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Volume-to-Capacity Ratio D el ay , s ec on ds p er v eh ic le Total Delay; G/C = 0.4 Total Delay; G/C = 0.5 Total Delay; G/C = 0.6 G/C = 0.40 G/C = 0.50 G/C = 0.60 SOURCE: TCRP A-23A project team EXHIBIT 4-44 Signalized Intersection Delay (120-Second Cycle and Range of Effective Green)
From page 96...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-36 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Volume-to-Capacity Ratio D el ay , s ec on ds p er v eh ic le Total Delay; G/C = 0.4 Total Delay; G/C = 0.5 Total Delay; G/C = 0.6 G/C = 0.40 G/C = 0.50 G/C = 0.60 Before TSP, 33 seconds After TSP, 26 seconds SOURCE: TCRP A-23A project team EXHIBIT 4-45 Effect of TSP on Signalized Intersection Delay (90-Second Cycle) Simulation Modeling Another method to identify TSP impacts is to develop a simulation model of "before" and "after" conditions at an intersection or along a corridor and measure the change in bus travel time and delay and general traffic delay.
From page 97...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-37 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts The flowchart shown in Exhibit 4-46 illustrates different factors (and their relationships) to be considered in deciding on the application and configuration of TSP for a BRT project.
From page 98...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-38 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide SOURCE: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. EXHIBIT 4-47 Queue Jump and Bypass Lane Operation SOURCE: Kittelson & Associates, Inc.
From page 99...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-39 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts With a queue jump, the typical type of bus detection is either a loop located in the pavement of a right-turn lane or separate bus lane on the near side of the intersection (just short of the stop bar or crosswalk) or video detection.
From page 100...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-40 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Reported travel time savings associated with queue jumps/bypass lanes are as follows: • 7- to 10-second bus intersection delay savings on Lincoln Street at 13th Avenue in Denver • 27-second reduction in bus travel time along NE 45th Street route in Seattle during morning peak period • 12-second reduction in bus travel time along NE 45th Street route in Seattle during afternoon peak period in Seattle • 6-second reduction in bus travel time along NE 45th Street route in Seattle across an entire day Operating Cost Savings By reducing bus travel time, some operating cost savings can be achieved with queue jumps and/or bypass lanes if implemented in a systematic manner. Safety With either a bus queue jump or bypass lane treatment at a signalized intersection, extra signing and pavement marking are important given the potential perception by motorists of unexpected bus maneuvers (e.g., a bus pulling ahead of general traffic from a right-turn or separate lane or buses going through the intersection in a right-turn lane)
From page 101...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-41 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Exhibit 4-49 presents a graph that identifies the travel time savings associated with a queue jump treatment assuming (1) the queue jump lane is long enough to function effectively and (2)
From page 102...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-42 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Before Bus pulls to curb at bus stop: must wait for gap in traffic to proceed. Curb extended into parking lane, bus stops in travel lane; more curbside parking available.
From page 103...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-43 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts In addition to serving as a bus preferential treatment, curb extensions provide an opportunity to beautify the streetscape by providing added space for landscaping and passenger amenities such as benches, telephones, and pedestrianscale lighting. Curb extensions also reduce the pedestrian crossing distance across the street on which the bus is operating.
From page 104...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-44 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Exhibit 4-52 identifies clearance times associated with different adjacent-lane mixed-traffic volumes under particular bus operating conditions. A volume of 300 to 500 vehicles per lane (typical for a city street and the upper volume limit for constructing curb extensions)
From page 105...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-45 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Implementability The ability to develop curb extensions depends on the ability to remove parking or a loading zone at an intersection or mid-block. Curb extensions for bus preferential treatments are most appropriate when TSP is not feasible and when bus queue jump or bypass lane treatments are either not possible or would have unacceptable operational or safety impacts.
From page 106...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-46 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Selected Typical Examples Examples of BRT stations are shown in Exhibit 4-53 through Exhibit 4-61. These examples illustrate the wide range of station types that have been keyed to specific local conditions.
From page 107...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-47 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts SOURCE: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. EXHIBIT 4-54 BRT Station Example (Pittsburgh)
From page 108...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-48 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide SOURCE: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. EXHIBIT 4-57 BRT Station Example (Miami)
From page 109...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-49 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts SOURCE: http://en.wikipedia.org EXHIBIT 4-60 BRT Station Example (Brisbane, Australia) SOURCE: www.i70mtncorridor.com EXHIBIT 4-61 BRT Station Example (Ottawa)
From page 110...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-50 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide • Station building type and design • Need for passing lanes Exhibit 4-62 gives examples of station features and amenities for selected BRT systems (circa 2002)
From page 111...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-51 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-63 Features of Selected Existing BRT Stations Feature B os to n ( Si lv er Li n e P ha se 1 )
From page 112...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-52 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Estimated Costs Reported station costs for various BRT station features are shown in Exhibit 465 through Exhibit 4-67. The following observations apply: • Costs for busway stations range from about $150,000 (Miami)
From page 113...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-53 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-67 Reported BRT Station Costs by Station Component Component Cost Cleveland Bench $2,000 Standard shelter $15,000 Upgraded shelter $150,000 Posted bus information $10,000 Real-time bus information $15,000 Ticket machine $10,000 Artwork/landscaping $1,000,000 overall Trash receptacle $1,000 Telephone $500 Miami Bench $60 Ticket vending machine $27,700 Telephone $850 Trash receptacle $6 Special painting/logo $350 Bicycle racks $1,000 Ottawa 5' x 10' shelter $4,500 Oversized shelter $11,000 to $15,000 Large station building Several million dollars Vancouver, BC Cost per shelter $44,600 Services per platform $26,160 SOURCE: TCRP Project A-23A Interim Report (3) Likely Impacts The generalized effects of various station features on BRT system performance and benefits are set forth in Exhibit 4-68.
From page 114...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-54 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide EXHIBIT 4-68 Generalized Effects of BRT Station Elements System Performance Element Travel Time Savings Reliability Identity and Image Safety and Security Capacity System Benefits Station Types:  Basic shelter  Enhanced shelter  Designated station  Intermodal transit center Integrated stations serving multiple modes minimize transfer time penalties. More distinct station types enhance the brand identity of the system.
From page 115...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-55 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Ridership Effects of Station Features There is some evidence that BRT systems attract riders as a result of their running way permanence, attractive vehicles and stations, clear and frequent service, and good connections to adjacent development. Station components have been estimated to account for up to 15% of a maximum 10-minute travel time bias constant or 25% added ridership beyond that obtained by travel time and service frequency improvements alone.
From page 116...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-56 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide SOURCE: http://www.oxfordproperties.com EXHIBIT 4-71 Office Development at Kent Transitway Station (Ottawa) More than $1 billion (Canadian)
From page 117...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-57 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts NOTE: These photos show the Queensland Art Gallery (adjacent to the Cultural Centre station's pedestrian bridge) , the Queen Street Mall (above the Queen Street station)
From page 118...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-58 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Berth Design Linear parallel berths are desirable for most BRT stations. However, shallow saw-tooth berths are desirable in terminal areas where independent entry and exit is essential.
From page 119...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-59 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Center platform configurations are used along several busways in South America (e.g., Bogotá and Curitiba)
From page 120...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-60 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Evaluation Stations are an essential BRT component. For maximum cost-effectiveness they should be coordinated with adjacent development, widely spaced (insofar as it is appropriate for the surrounding land uses)
From page 121...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-61 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts allows buses to accelerate faster, eliminates abrupt shifting, and improves ride quality. • Use of electronic, mechanical, and optional guidance systems enables raillike passenger boarding and alighting convenience and rail-like service times at stations.
From page 122...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-62 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide SOURCE: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. EXHIBIT 4-75 Standard-Length and Articulated Buses (Van Hool BRT)
From page 123...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-63 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-76 Tentative Vehicle Demand for Select Cities for 2004-2013 City/ Community Transit Authority/Agency Articulated Vehicle 40- to 45-ft Vehicle 30- to 35-ft Vehicle Alameda-Contra Costa Counties, CA AC Transit 60 3 Albany Capital District Transportation Authority (CDTA) 20 Atlanta Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA)
From page 124...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-64 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide EXHIBIT 4-77 Inventory of BRT Vehicles Standard-Length Buses Make/ Model Description Length Width Height NABI 40 - LFW  Seats - 40  Standees - 30  Front- or rear-door wheelchair ramp  Two wheelchair positions  Low-floor entry/exit at all doors 40 ft 102 in.
From page 125...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-65 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Neoplan AN 460LF  Seats - 68, customer selectable  Standees - 29  Front- or rear-door wheelchair ramp  Two wheelchair positions  Full low-floor for easy entry/exit  Two or three doors, extra-wide plug 60 ft 102 in.
From page 126...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-66 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide NOTE: This bus is no longer being manufactured. SOURCE: Vehicle Catalog 2005 Update (16)
From page 127...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-67 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Likely Impacts Certain economic considerations should be taken into account when selecting a bus size. Larger buses provide added capacity and, hence, can accommodate a particular ridership demand with fewer vehicles or longer headways.
From page 128...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-68 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide with high backs; small worktables at some seats; wider aisles; added leg room; and a continuous, brightly lit interior. Conditions of Application Modern vehicle styling may be applied as part of BRT branding to provide customers with an improved perception of the transit system in its entirety.
From page 129...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-69 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts SOURCE: NABI EXHIBIT 4-84 Example of a Stylized BRT Vehicle SOURCE: Gillig EXHIBIT 4-85 Example of a Stylized BRT Vehicle SOURCE: Gillig EXHIBIT 4-86 Example of a Non-Stylized Vehicle SOURCE: DMJM+Harris EXHIBIT 4-87 Examples of BRT Vehicle Interiors
From page 130...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-70 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide SOURCE: York Region Transit EXHIBIT 4-88 Example of Seats with High Backs and On-Board Worktables SOURCE: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. EXHIBIT 4-89 Example of Support for Standees in the Articulation Joint of a Bus Estimated Costs Stylized vehicles are more expensive than conventional non-stylized vehicles.
From page 131...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-71 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Likely Impacts The implementation of modern-looking vehicles with improved interior aesthetics has been proven to have a positive impact on ridership. Additionally, larger windows and higher roofs give clients a feeling of added security and space (1)
From page 132...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-72 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide SOURCE: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. EXHIBIT 4-90 Low-Floor Bus (Las Vegas)
From page 133...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-73 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts accessibility requirements in newly purchased vehicles. Additionally, agencies must make efforts, within their economic capabilities, to modify existing buses or purchase or lease used buses that meet the accessibility requirements.
From page 134...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-74 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide illustrated in Exhibit 4-92. Faster boarding times may also have a positive effect on bus frequency in high passenger density areas.
From page 135...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-75 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Propulsion/Fuel Technologies Description Propulsion technologies are constantly changing to meet stricter emissions standards as well as provide propulsion systems with higher efficiency. Diesel buses currently dominate most BRT operations; however, other propulsion technologies are also available and becoming increasingly popular, such as natural gas and diesel-electric hybrids.
From page 136...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-76 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide SOURCE: Analysis of Fuels and Propulsion System Options for BRT Vehicles (19) EXHIBIT 4-95 Fuel Preferences for Articulated Vehicles SOURCE: Vehicle Demand and Supply Analysis Update (17)
From page 137...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-77 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Selected Typical Examples Most vehicle manufacturers today offer a variety of propulsion system options. The application of a given type of propulsion system typically depends on performance requirements by the transit agency, budget, and experiences with different propulsion systems.
From page 138...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-78 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide other factors. This range is considerably lower than values reported in Analysis of Fuels and Propulsion System Options for BRT Vehicles (19)
From page 139...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-79 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts SOURCE: Analysis of Fuels and Propulsion System Options for BRT Vehicles (19) EXHIBIT 4-100 Projected Vehicle Nitrogen Oxides Emissions Implementability The implementation of different types of propulsion systems must be carefully analyzed during the preliminary engineering stage of a BRT project.
From page 140...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-80 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide EXHIBIT 4-101 Methods Used To Determine Vehicle Position System Technology Description Advantages/Disadvantages Global Positioning Systems (GPS) The location of the GPS device is determined through an interpolation of satellite signals.
From page 141...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-81 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts SOURCE: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. EXHIBIT 4-103 APC Sensors (York, ON, Region)
From page 142...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-82 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Transit (Vancouver) ; Glendale Beeline (Glendale, CA)
From page 143...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-83 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-105 Capital Costs and Reported per Vehicle Costs of AVL Systems Agency Number of Vehicles with AVL Type of AVL Total Capital Cost of AVL System Reported AVL Cost per Vehicle RTD 1,111 GPS $15,000,000 N/A City Bus 25 GPS $150,000 $3,000 DTC 189 GPS $12,000,000 N/A Fairfax CUE 12 GPS $60,000 $5,000 Glendale Beeline 20 GPS $171,000 (includes the capital cost of 2 signs) $8,100 LADOT/LACMT A - Metro Rapid 150 Loop inductors $2,100,000 (includes cost of TSP system - signal equipment, roadway sensors, etc.)
From page 144...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-84 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Conditions of Application The ADA encourages the construction of new facilities with improved access to vehicles and reasonable retrofits of existing facilities. Automated docking systems provide this access because, generally, these are constructed to offer passengers level boarding with a very small gap between the curb and the vehicle.
From page 145...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-85 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-108 Driver Assist System Costs Driver Assist and Automation System Cost Loop detectors $13,500/intersection Magnetic tape (3M) $5,000-$1,000/vehicle Curb-guided, rail-guided, grid-based $3 to $15.5 million per lane-mile Vision and magnetic plug/tape-based $20,000 per lane-mile DGPS $250 per lane-mile (cost for building digital map)
From page 146...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-86 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide • Service frequency is tailored to market demands. Most existing systems have headways of 10 minutes or less during peak hours.
From page 147...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-87 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-110 Examples of BRT Service Patterns BRT Service Service Pattern Arterial Streets Boston - Silver Line Cleveland - Euclid Ave (under construction) Curitiba - various routes Los Angeles - Wilshire and Ventura Blvds New York City - proposed BRT routes Vancouver, BC - 98-B and 99-B Lines BRT only BRT only BRT only BRT overlaid on local service BRT overlaid on local service BRT overlaid on local service Busways Boston - Silver Line Los Angeles - Orange Line Miami - South Miami Dade Busway Ottawa - Transitway system Pittsburgh - Busway system 3 basic BRT routes All-stop BRT route All-stop BRT route + peak-period express routes 2 basic all-stop BRT routes + many peak-period express routes Basic all-stop routes + peak-period express routes SOURCE: TCRP A-23A research EXHIBIT 4-111 Experience with BRT Service Plans Miami Oakland Orlando Pittsburgh Phoenix Service Plan Characteristic South Dade Busway San Pablo Rapid Lymmo Busways Rapid Route Structure Integrated network of routes BRT route overlay onto local route BRT route replaced local downtown circulator Integrated network of routes Express routes Number of Routes Operating in Network 6 1 1 3 4 Number of AllStop Routes 2 1 1 3 -- Number of Express Routes 4 -- -- -- 4 Span of Service All day All day All day All day Weekday peak hour only Frequency of Service (headway during peak hour)
From page 148...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-88 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide • Routes should be direct, and the number of bus turns should be kept to a minimum. • BRT routes should operate on partially or fully dedicated right-of-way wherever possible.
From page 149...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-89 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-112 Typical BRT Service Frequencies Frequency (minutes) 1 Service Type1 Peak Hours Midday Evening SaturdaySunday All-stop (base service)
From page 150...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-90 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Assuming that the layover/schedule recovery time equals 10% of the total round-trip running time, the previous relationship becomes the following: Vh L Vh LN 13260)
From page 151...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-91 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts • BRT operating costs are sensitive to "driver" wage rates and benefits and operating speeds. Therefore, they must reflect local conditions and must be developed specifically for each BRT system.
From page 152...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-92 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide BRT O&M costs should also include (1) costs per station for station maintenance including passenger information systems, (2)
From page 153...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-93 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-116 Example of Fully Allocated Approach for BRT Expense Items Function and Expense Object Class1 Vehicle Hours Vehicle Kilometers Peak Vehicles LaneMiles of Special Running Ways Number of Stations ITS2 501 Labor 010 Vehicle operations 041 Vehicle maintenance 042 Non-vehicle maintenance Running ways Stations ITS 160 General administration X X X X X X X 502 Fringe benefits 010 Vehicle operations 041 Vehicle maintenance 042 Non-vehicle maintenance Running ways Stations ITS 160 General administration X X X X X X X 503 Services X 504 Materials and supplies 010 Vehicle operations 041 Vehicle maintenance 042 Non-vehicle maintenance Running ways Stations ITS 160 General administration X X X X X X X 505 Utilities X 506 Casualty and liability costs X 507 Taxes 010 Vehicle operations 041 Vehicle maintenance 042 Non-vehicle maintenance Running ways Stations ITS 160 General administration X X X X X X X 508 Purchased transportation X 509 Miscellaneous expenses X 510 Expense transfers X 511-516 Total reconciling items X 1 Adapted from FTA Section 15 Reporting System, Level R 2 Specifically computed
From page 154...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-94 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide EXHIBIT 4-117 Operating Expenses for Bus Transit (2001) Item Percentage Vehicle Operations 50.5 Purchased Transportation 10 Vehicle Maintenance 19.6 Non-Vehicle Maintenance 4.1 General Administration 15.7 Total 100% NOTE: The total is $13,335,332,000.
From page 155...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-95 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-119 Summary of Effects of BRT Service Plan Elements on System Performance and Benefits System Performance Service Plan Element Travel Time Savings Reliability Identity and Image Safety and Security Capacity System Benefits Route length Shorter route lengths may promote greater control of reliability. Route structure:  Single route  Overlapping route with skip-stop or express variations  Integrated or network system Integrated route structures reduce the need for transfers.
From page 156...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-96 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Exhibit 4-120, Part A, shows how bus travel times relate to arterial street bus speeds and station dwell times. Exhibit 4-120, Part B, gives generalized values for estimating the effects of street-traffic delays for various operating environments.
From page 157...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-97 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 S T O P S P E R M IL E A VE R G E SP EE D (M PH )
From page 158...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-98 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide BRT condition includes a bus lane, add 0.5 to 1.0 minute per mile. (See Example 2 in Exhibit 4-122.)
From page 159...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-99 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts with other transit service improvements, resources should be available to provide the improved service. When a BRT route runs on a new right-of-way, changes in existing bus routes may be needed.
From page 160...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-100 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide SOURCE: Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada EXHIBIT 4-123 BRT Ticket Vending Machine (Las Vegas) SOURCE: Chicago Transit Authority EXHIBIT 4-124 Smart Card and Single-Ride Fare Card Conditions of Application Fare payment methods for planned BRT systems should be analyzed based on the three design attributes: fare collection process, fare media, and fare structure.
From page 161...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-101 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Selected Typical Examples Fare collection practices for U.S. BRT systems are shown in Exhibit 4-125.
From page 162...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-102 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Estimated Costs Exhibit 4-127 gives cost ranges for capital, installation, operation, and maintenance costs for various elements of bus fare collection systems. This table provides general fare collection equipment costs for all transit modes in general (i.e., it does not address BRT systems in particular)
From page 163...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-103 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-127 Fare Collection Equipment Capital and Maintenance Costs* Capital Cost Elements (Bus-Related Fixed Costs per Unit)
From page 164...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-104 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide SOURCE: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. EXHIBIT 4-129 Real-Time Passenger Information Sign in Station (Los Angeles)
From page 165...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-105 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts SOURCE: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. EXHIBIT 4-132 On-Board Passenger Information Display (Los Angeles)
From page 166...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-106 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Scale of Application Passenger information systems used in some transit systems include telephone information stations, which require passengers to place a free call and request desired information; automated station announcements on vehicles, which annunciate the name of the next stop; and real-time information at stations, which uses AVL systems to track the arrival time of the next vehicle and communicate it through monitors or audible announcements to customers. Based on the 2005 U.S.
From page 167...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-107 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts SOURCE: www.trimet.org EXHIBIT 4-134 Real-Time Transit Information on the Internet (Portland, OR) EXHIBIT 4-135 BRT Passenger Information System Application Examples City Transit System Telephone Information Stations Passenger Information Automated Station Announcements On Vehicle Real Time Information at Stations US/Canada Boston Silver Line Yes Yes Yes Eugene, OR Arterial Median Transitway Yes Hartford New Britain Busway (proposed)
From page 168...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-108 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide EXHIBIT 4-136 Passenger Information System Component Costs Component Cost Status sign (at stations) $4,000-$8,000 each Los Angeles Metro Rapid $5,000 TriMet $4,000 On-board passenger information $2,000-$7,000 per bus Los Angeles Metro Rapid $4,000 Voice and video monitoring $4,000-$5,000 capital, $25,000 O&M Electronic information kiosk $1.3 million (New York City, 20 kiosks)
From page 169...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-109 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts focus on maintaining the uninterrupted operation of the BRT system by preventing injuries to users and damage to system vehicles and infrastructure. Manual surveillance and the provision of defensible space are also essential.
From page 170...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-110 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide SOURCE: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. EXHIBIT 4-137 On-Board CCTV Camera (Las Vegas)
From page 171...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-111 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Driver assist technology can aid in the safer operation of a transit vehicle. This technology includes components such as cameras for collision warning and prevention and voice and data communication with a central control center.
From page 172...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-112 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Implementability The implementation of safety and security systems should follow the recommendations presented in FTA's Handbook for Transit Safety and Security Certification (32)
From page 173...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-113 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts EXHIBIT 4-140 Safety and Security Certification Program Categories Category Description Systemwide Elements Includes passenger vehicles, voice and data communications, CCTV, grade crossing and traffic control system, intrusion detection system, running ways, fare collection, supervisory control, fire protection and suppression systems, and auxiliary vehicles and equipment. Fixed Facilities Includes stations and shelter stops, pedestrian bridges, yard and shop structures, and the control center.
From page 174...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-115 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts SOURCE: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. EXHIBIT 4-144 BRT Branding Example - Logo (Orlando)
From page 175...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-114 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Conditions of Application Branding should be an integral part of the overall BRT system design. There are no specific "warrants" as such.
From page 176...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-116 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Likely Impacts Branding conveys a system identity/image to existing and potential passengers. This image may translate into increased ridership over the long run.
From page 177...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Page 4-117 Component Features, Costs, and Impacts REFERENCES 1.
From page 178...
... Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Component Features, Costs, and Impacts Page 4-118 Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide Systems for Bus Rapid Transit Service. WestStart-CALSTART, 2005.

Key Terms



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