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From page 1...
... 10 – Bus Routing and Coverage OVERVIEW AND SUMMARY This "Bus Routing and Coverage" chapter addresses traveler response to, and related impacts of, conventional bus transit routing alterations. Included are routing changes at both the individual route and system level, new bus systems and system closures, bus system expansion and retrenchment, increases and decreases in geographic coverage, and routing and coverage changes made together with fare changes.
From page 2...
... BRT and Express Bus," and all aspects of dial-a-ride and ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) services are covered in Chapter 6, "Demand Responsive/ADA." Bus service enhancements focused on employment areas and implemented as a Travel Demand Management (TDM)
From page 3...
... recombination of routes, and the provision of trunkline, crosstown, express, and feeder services, generally in the context of a cohesive systemwide service plan. Changed Urban Coverage.
From page 4...
... The dearth of detail often leads to classification in gross terms such as whether or not ridership generated was sufficient that the operator found the service feasible, i.e., retained it. Here, the effects of aging data are critical.
From page 5...
... The mid-range of ridership response to expansions of bus transit, either acting alone or with fare changes, is bounded by service elasticities in the +0.6 to +1.0 range.1 Much broader variations have been reported, including instances of ridership increase in the elastic range (over +1.0)
From page 6...
... New residential and multipurpose feeders to trunkline bus services and commuter rail tend to attract volumes, after two or three years, in the range of 100 to 600 daily trips. Comparable results for new single purpose employer shuttles are in the range of 25 to 600 daily trips.
From page 7...
... The initial passengers per bus mile rates obtained were for the most part lower than the national average of 2.06 then pertaining for urbanized areas of less than 500,000 population. A large student population combined with a student pass program may account for the relatively high utilization in Chapel Hill (Wagner and Gilbert, 1978)
From page 8...
... The service expansion elasticity average is +0.7 to +0.8. In contrast, changes in frequency alone result in elasticities averaging +0.5, while changes in service accompanying the introduction of express operation result in elasticities averaging +0.9.
From page 9...
... Service increases in the off-peak were found to affect off-peak ridership more than peak service increases affect peak ridership in an examination of 30 British cities. Off-peak service elasticities averaged +0.76 versus +0.58 for peak period service (Mayworm, Lago and McEnroe, 1980)
From page 10...
... Suburban Systemwide Service Expansions Analogous to the small city/large city dichotomy, suburbs and suburban "edge cities" -- with their traditionally poorer transit service -- tend to achieve greater ridership response to service increases than central cities and commuting corridors with their typically better service. Calculation of service elasticities by route type in San Diego gave the following results, with the least sensitivity exhibited by routes oriented to the central business district (CBD)
From page 11...
... Ride-On exhibited a service elasticity of +1.14 during its peak growth and +1.07 over a 20-year period. Santa Clara VTA achieved a service elasticity of +1.17 during its peak service growth and +1.42 over a 20-year period.
From page 12...
... Service Changes with Fare Changes Service Versus Fare Sensitivities Table 10-6 provides comparisons between service and fare elasticities reported on the basis of either quasi-experimental data or time series analyses. The service changes covered are not exclusively bus routing and coverage changes.
From page 13...
... Service and Fare Changes in Combination Service improvements in combination with fare decreases obviously provide greater impetus for ridership increase than would result from applying either change alone. There is also a synergistic effect important to energy conservation and emissions reduction efforts, which is that reduced fares help fill expanded seat-miles of service, increasing service effectiveness (see also "Related Information and Impacts" -- "VMT, Energy and Environment" in Chapter 9, "Transit Scheduling and Frequency")
From page 14...
... several examples, are provided in Chapter 12, "Transit Pricing and Fares," under "Response by Type of Strategy" -- "Changes in Fare Categories" -- "Unlimited Travel Pass Partnerships." Some key examples for which ridership results are available were associated in a major way with bus service changes and are thus described here. Introduction of the University of Washington U-Pass in 1992 was accompanied by both routing changes associated with opening of the Seattle Bus Tunnel and bus frequency improvements.
From page 15...
... A concern in service restructuring is whether alterations that force existing transit riders to change their familiar patterns run the risk of driving away patronage. Obviously, if the change is for the worse from the passenger perspective, ridership loss will result.
From page 16...
... Variations on Grid Configurations A major realignment of the radial routes serving Southeast Portland, Oregon, was undertaken in 1977. More continuous east-west and north-south service patterns were established, combined with introduction of new crosstown service.
From page 17...
... attractors along arterial streets with heavy commercial activity. Low productivity routes were abandoned or received reduced service frequency.
From page 18...
... artifact of increased transferring. In one case, the Bellevue -- University District consolidation, passengers per bus hour productivity growth was three times the sector average.
From page 19...
... work adjustments in 1993 included elimination of two routes, addition of two routes, and expanded service on other lines. Ridership increased 5 percent overall, with sharp changes on individual lines.
From page 20...
... An examination of 10 late 1970's route extensions in Albany and Rochester found that although household density and service area population were rough indicators of patronage attraction, specific local conditions appeared to be more important. One route experienced significant ridership loss despite no change in operations aside from extension, indicating that exogenous factors can overshadow impacts associated with increased coverage.
From page 21...
... daily with 2,200 total on weekends. Route productivity in 1998 was already 30.9 boardings per bus hour, above average for King County Metro and 88 percent of the average for Seattle proper and its north suburbs (King County DOT, 1998a and b; Harper, Rynerson and Wold, 1998–99)
From page 22...
... Two examples illustrate. In 1987, the River Terminal Development Corporation requested a stop and offered $9,000 a year for operating costs to realign Route 1 between Newark and Jersey City.
From page 23...
... increase. Service elasticity calculations give a highly elastic value of +5.8 (short term)
From page 24...
... Circulator/Distributor Routes Downtown transit shuttles vary significantly in terms of ridership and cost per passenger: the success experience is very mixed. Downtown shuttle systems are much more successful when there exists an identifiable transportation need or opportunity, the service is well targeted to serve the travel market or markets involved, high service frequencies can be supported, and travel distances are long enough to discourage walking.
From page 25...
... restaurant district, the fare is 25¢ and the daily ridership is 1,200. The annual 1996–97 operating cost was $1,827,100, or $5.06 per passenger (Urban Transportation Monitor, March 28, 1997)
From page 26...
... tourists (Rosenbloom, 1998)
From page 27...
... Multipurpose Rail Feeders Surface transit feeders to rail stations are a long-established component of many big city transit operations. Many have multipurpose characteristics, connecting not only residential but also mixed-use neighborhoods to Metro stations in particular.
From page 28...
... reportedly liked the arrangement in the end. The resulting transfer rate within the Bi-State bus/rail system is 43 percent, high relative to other systems.
From page 29...
... Approximately 32 percent of the OmniLink feeder bus riders were new to VRE. Some 52 percent reported having started or continued to use VRE in part because of the OmniLink service and free transfer.
From page 30...
... The employment sites covered in Table 10-9 are all in suburban and even urban downtowns, and thus the market shares may not be representative of what is achievable in highly auto-oriented office and industrial parks. Indeed, based on a similar compilation of shuttle/rail market shares for suburban employer application, using experience from Chicago and unspecified comparable metropolitan areas, mode shares of 3.4 percent transit for inter-suburbs commute trips and 5.0 for reverse commute trips from the central city have been derived.
From page 31...
... Similar operations run by SEPTA in the Philadelphia suburbs, timed to meet reverse commute trains operating on 30-minute headways, carry from 10 to 20 passengers per bus trip. SEPTA was operating five such "200-series" routes in early 1995; one of the original routes had been canceled and another converted to Saturday only service (Rosenbloom, 1998)
From page 32...
... Disadvantaged Neighborhoods to Jobs Routes The 1960s saw a major federally supported effort to provide transit service between mostly-innercity areas of high unemployment and suburban job sites. More recently, with welfare reform, attention again has been focused upon reverse commute and other routes that afford transit access from disadvantaged neighborhoods to jobs.
From page 33...
... Experiences of the 1960s Predecessor agencies to the Federal Transit Administration initiated in 1966, and continued through 1969, a program of exploratory and service development grants to foster provision of missing but needed transit services in the high-unemployment-area-to-suburban jobs category. A study of projects in 14 cities found about three-fifths of the grant expenditures to be resulting in permanent bus route development.
From page 34...
... The Federal Transit Administration funded ten 1995–1996 JOBLINKS demonstration projects that attempted to demonstrate various means of providing transportation to employment-related destinations for unemployed and underemployed people. Three of the ten projects involved fixed route bus service.
From page 35...
... November and December ridership on the West Towne Mall route averaged 44 passengers per Sunday, and on the East Towne Mall route, 29 passengers. Productivity per vehicle mile was less than half that of the previous citywide operation.
From page 36...
... When out-of-vehicle time is broken out into its walk and wait time components, as in Table 10-12, consistency among modeled sensitivities becomes less apparent. Nevertheless, as in the recent Portland model (Kim, 1998)
From page 37...
... neither end at home, the estimated transfer penalty ranged from the equivalent of 27 minutes per transfer for work-related trips to 2 hours for non-work, non-home-based travel (Parsons Brinckerhoff, 1993)
From page 38...
... Comprehensive service expansion and restructuring is directed at providing attractive transit service to an increased proportion of total travel requirements. The degree to which urban activities in general can be reached within a reasonable time via public transit has in some studies been found to influence transit usage in somewhat the some way as income does (Metropolitan Washington COG, 1981; Texas Transportation Institute and Barton-Aschman, 1979)
From page 39...
... data, boarding and alighting data, special counts, non-user surveys, and estimation of winners and losers among existing riders (Harper, Rynerson and Wold, 1998–99)
From page 40...
... 10-40 Table 10-14 Transit Use Indices by Market Niche for Metropolitan Areas under 1,000,000 Population Population Range (Average Transit Share) Market Niches 50,000–200,000 (0.80% to 3.32%)
From page 41...
... Transit riders traveling for non-work purposes in 1990 presented a similar cross-section, but without the higher usage effect at the highest income and educational levels. Higher than average transit usage for non-work trips was found among persons with household incomes below $30,000.
From page 42...
... The travel purposes in Table 10-15 are determined according to standard travel demand analysis protocol, except that non-home-based travel (trips with neither end at home) is not separately identified.
From page 43...
... In the case of the experimental Boston crosstown lines in particular, many former riders of other transit lines made the switch to the new routes in order to minimize travel time and transfers (Mass Transportation Commission et al, 1964)
From page 44...
... Roughly one out of five transit users surveyed stated that they would not make their trip if transit service were not available. This finding serves to illustrate the role of transit service in providing mobility to transit "captives" -- persons with no automobile available for their trip (McCollom Management Consulting, Inc., 1999)
From page 45...
... home-to-bus walk access/egress percentages would range from 88 to 97 percent, and the nonhome walk percentages would be in an even tighter range between 93 and 96 percent. 10-45 As previously noted, the FTA/APTA survey responses include express bus riders along with local bus riders.
From page 46...
... access/egress percentages. Data specific to the Pittsburgh busways is found in Chapter 4, "Busways, BRT and Express Bus." Traveler Response Time Lag Transit service additions and modifications do not instantaneously result in fully developed transit ridership changes.
From page 47...
... 10-47 Figure 10-1 Deficit per passenger route development trends for 1960s job access routes in Los Angeles and Long Island Note: Vertical axis is logarithmic scale. Source: Crain (1970)
From page 48...
... Impacts of Strikes Results of transit strikes serve as an indicator, albeit imperfect because of their temporary nature, of the transportation functions provided by urban transit. The majority of all trips normally made by transit shift to other travel modes, but a very significant proportion are suppressed for the duration of a strike.
From page 49...
... The impact on vehicular volumes of major transit strikes is nevertheless readily evident. During the A.C.
From page 50...
... 10-50 Table 10-23 Impacts of Transit Service Expansion on Equivalent Vehicle Miles of Travel Location Seattle, WAd Miami, FLd Portland, ORd San Diego, CAd Average for Larger Cities Madison, WId Eugene, ORd f Raleigh, NCd Bakersfield, CAd Bay City, MI Greenville, NCf Annual New Bus Miles 2,028,000 2,729,000 1,850,000 4,878,000 2,158,000 246,000 520,000 1,802,000 279,000 329,000 329,000 134,000 Average Trip Length (miles)
From page 51...
... Energy and Environmental Relationships In considering the energy and environmental impact of changes in transit service, it is necessary to assess not only the automotive energy and emissions savings of those trips new to transit that are former auto driver trips, but also the effect of the service change on transit energy consumption and emissions. This is particularly true with regard to bus service coverage and frequency changes.
From page 52...
... Fuel savings estimates have also been computed for early cases of major bus coverage and frequency improvement in San Diego and Atlanta. Strong synergistic benefits were obtained in these particular cases from implementation in conjunction with fare reductions (Pratt and Copple, 1981)
From page 53...
... ond order effects (Pansing, Schreffler and Sillings, 1998; Schreffler, Costa and Moyer, 1996)
From page 54...
... third years, respectively (Michael Baker et al, 1997)
From page 55...
... Planning additional service requires choices to be made among the various types of bus routing and coverage options, frequency increases, and express service and determination of whether the changes are to be peak, midday, evening, and/or weekend oriented. Providing a comprehensive package of improvements is apparently beneficial (Holland, 1974)
From page 56...
... Measures of transit system effectiveness in terms of service, ridership and productivity, VMT reduction, and revenue and expense were presented for each system. The effects of inflation (declining fares in constant dollars)
From page 57...
... Greenville, North Carolina, was highlighted as a case example of a new transit system. Three routes, two of which were large loops, were initiated.
From page 58...
... elasticities. Interplay with parallel and intersecting transit services was not analyzed, nor was data collected on fare changes or other influences.
From page 59...
... service elasticities derived by attributing to the service increases the entire change in ridership over the full case study time spans range from +1.07 for Ride-On to +1.42 in Santa Clara County, and approximately +1.33 for OCTD in Orange County. These values pertain only in the context of population and employment growth on the order of 2 to 6 percent average per year.
From page 60...
... Results. Transit patronage rose from 85,540 in September 1971, the first month of the new operation, to 136,582 in February 1972.
From page 61...
... Results. The combined effect of service increases, unlimited travel pass partnerships, and population growth produced bus ridership increases that kept pace with the substantial service increases, as shown in Table 10-30.
From page 62...
... Service Restructuring and New Services in Metropolitan Seattle Situation. A "Six-Year Transit Development Plan 1996–2001" was adopted in late 1995 by the Metropolitan King County Council for Seattle and its suburbs.
From page 63...
... Analysis. Ridership data was primarily obtained in the form of unlinked trips estimated from automatic passenger counting.
From page 64...
... It appears that Renton Corridor ridership grew during peak periods at a rate similar to or perhaps slightly less than the I-90 Express "control group," but that more dramatic gains in off-peak ridership were obtained. At the same time, major increases were achieved in the efficiency of utilization of through buses to downtown Seattle.
From page 65...
... "Before" transfer rate data is lacking, but comparison of the "after" transfer rate of 56 percent with the 49 percent rate for south King County as a whole suggests that the increase in midday linked trips might be roughly 47 percent or so. Ridership and service measures for the entire Renton corridor, including community feeders to the south and east, are discussed with respect to Table 10-33.
From page 66...
... The substantial ridership growth for each of these service consolidations, ranging from 28 to 54 percent over 3-1/3 years, is sufficiently above that for the regional sectors involved to give reasonable certainty that the difference is not simply an artifact of increased transferring. Growth in productivity for the Cross-Lake Bellevue -- Seattle Corridor, which had only half a year to adjust at the time of evaluation, is 40 percent below the east sector productivity growth.
From page 67...
... Impacts of a Bus Transit Strike in the San Francisco East Bay Cities Situation/Action. A 62-day bus strike began July 1, 1974, at the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)
From page 68...
... summer school in Oakland reported extreme travel difficulties or could not attend at all. Normally the young and the elderly constituted 65 percent of all non-work bus trips.
From page 69...
... Comsis Corporation, "A Case Study of the Experience of Seattle Metro in Fostering Suburban Mobility." Prepared for Urban Mass Transportation Administration, Washington, DC (1991)
From page 70...
... Holland, D K., A Review of Reports Relating to the Effects of Fare and Service Changes in Metropolitan Public Transportation Systems.
From page 71...
... Mayworm, P., Lago, A., and McEnroe, J., Patronage Impacts of Changes in Transit Fares and Services. Sponsored by Urban Mass Transportation Administration, U.S.
From page 72...
... Pratt, R
From page 73...
... Taylor, B., Haas, P., Boyd, B., Haas, D B., Iseki, H., and Yoh, A, Increasing Transit Ridership: Lessons from the Most Successful Transit Systems in the 1990s.

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