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Pages 23-81

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From page 23...
... V-1 SECTION V Descriptions of Strategies Objectives To reduce the number of heavy-truck fatality crashes, the objectives should include • Reducing truck driver fatigue, • Strengthening commercial driver's license (CDL) requirements and enforcement, • Increasing public knowledge about sharing the road, • Improving maintenance of heavy trucks, • Identifying and correcting unsafe roadway and operational characteristics, • Improving and enhancing truck safety data, and • Promoting industry safety initiatives.
From page 24...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES V-2 principal culpability most often lies with the driver of the other vehicle. Consequently, some effort needs to focus on drivers in general to reduce truck fatalities.
From page 25...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES implemented relatively quickly, including strategies that can be applied to "spots" on the roadway (e.g., curvature on off-ramps)
From page 26...
... The implication of the widely varying experience with these strategies, as well as the range of knowledge about their effectiveness, is that the reader should be prepared to exercise caution in many cases before adopting a particular strategy for implementation. To help the reader, the strategies have been classified into three types, each identified by letter throughout the guide: • Proven (P)
From page 27...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES to communicate ways to share the road safely with trucks. Truck maintenance is a chronic problem, and vehicle defects contribute to serious crashes.
From page 28...
... where it is desired to try an innovative and untried method. Within this guide, where the application of enforcement programs is deemed appropriate, it is often in support of some other strategy.
From page 29...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES Objective 12.1 A -- Reduce Fatigue-Related Crashes A major problem for many truck drivers, particularly over-the-road drivers, is finding a place to stop and rest at night, as well as for short periods during the day. Most states have existing space that could be used for additional truck parking during time periods that the space is not being used for its original intended purposes.
From page 30...
... spaces on the National Highway System, developed a truck parking demand model, surveyed truck drivers on the problem, estimated parking demand, identified major parking deficiencies, and identified improvements recommended by state partnerships to mitigate the problem. In the second report, a commercial driver survey (Chen et al., 2002)
From page 31...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES As noted above, drivers generally prefer commercial truck stops to public rest areas. The FHWA study of the adequacy of truck parking (Fleger et al., 2002)
From page 32...
... Trombly (2003) reports a survey of state officials indicating that the provision of improved information on space availability to truckers is regarded as an improvement strategy of high potential effectiveness.
From page 33...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES V-11 EXHIBIT V-3 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Making More Efficient Use of Existing Parking Spaces Attribute Description Potential Difficulties Appropriate Measures and Data Associated Needs Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, Institutional, and Policy Issues Issues Affecting Implementation Time When power outages occur and the sign is not operating, the pre-implementation parking problems may reappear.
From page 34...
... Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing this Strategy The North Carolina Department of Transportation is implementing this strategy on I-95 at the Virginia state line. A point of contact is Ms.
From page 35...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES stations to create more parking places in the space available, as well as allowing nighttime truck parking in spaces used by passenger vehicles during the day. Kentucky also developed the concept of "Rest Havens," whereby modifications are made to existing truck weigh stations to create additional parking spaces.
From page 36...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES V-14 EXHIBIT V-4 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Creating Additional Parking Spaces Attribute Description Potential Difficulties Appropriate Measures and Data Associated Needs Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, Institutional, and Policy Issues Potential difficulties include the obverse of the keys to success.
From page 37...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing this Strategy Appendix 1 is a state agency profile providing more information on the Kentucky Rest Haven initiative. NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 317: Dealing with Truck Parking Demands (Trombly, 2003)
From page 38...
... Strategy 12.1 A3: Incorporate Rumble Strips into New and Existing Roadways General Description Factors influencing driver alertness include time of day (i.e., "circadian troughs" like 3:00 to 5:00 a.m.) , amount of sleep, and time on task (hours driving)
From page 39...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES Some states conduct careful monitoring of CDL testing, whether by third parties or by their own examiners. Such monitoring can reduce the incidence of licensing unqualified drivers.
From page 40...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES V-18 states. This capability currently exists for all CDL holders, but not for non-CDL truck drivers in some states.
From page 41...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES V-19 (continued on next page) EXHIBIT V-5 Strategy Attributes for Improving Test Administration for the CDL Attribute Description Technical Attributes Target Expected Effectiveness Keys to Success Potential Difficulties Appropriate Measures and Data Associated Needs Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, Institutional, and Policy Issues Issues Affecting Implementation Time Applicants for CDL.
From page 42...
... Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing this Strategy Georgia is in the process of implementing this strategy, and Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New York are using it statewide. A point of contact in Georgia is Mickey Rawls (678-4138495, mrawls@dmvs.ga.gov)
From page 43...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES who could not legitimately pass the skill and road test. In response, Pennsylvania instituted a number of truck safety initiatives to reduce third-party testing fraud.
From page 44...
... California audits each ETP provider once a year, and roughly 10 percent of the test score sheets are randomly selected for inspection in each audit. Over the past 3 years, approximately 32 sanctions per year have been taken against ETP providers, but there have been no instances of legally verifiable fraud.
From page 45...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES management information system that would tabulate these statistics by area, month of testing, individual examiner, third provider, and organization (state versus private)
From page 46...
... content analysis and comparison with the model. However, this approach is much more tenuous in assessing the inter-rater reliability of the state test.
From page 47...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES V-25 EXHIBIT V-6 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Increasing Fraud Detection of Third-Party Testers Attribute Description Appropriate Measures and Data Associated Needs Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, Institutional, and Policy Issues Issues Affecting Implementation Time Where a performance bond is required, bond companies may have no experience with such a program.
From page 48...
... Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing this Strategy The information provided is based particularly on Pennsylvania's program for ensuring quality control for CDL testing. A contact in Pennsylvania is Joy Gross (717-787-9930, joygross@state.pa.us)
From page 49...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES passenger vehicle driver errors or other driver factors are cited in more than two-thirds of these crashes, whereas truck driver errors are cited in less than one-third (Craft and Blower, 2003b; FHWA, 1999c; Blower, 1999)
From page 50...
... Strategy 12.1 C1: Incorporate Share the Road Information into Driver Materials General Description The Share the Road Coalition (www.sharetheroadsafely.org) has been established as a public-private partnership of organizations embracing the goal of reducing crashes and fatal crashes involving large trucks and other vehicles.
From page 51...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES V-29 EXHIBIT V-7 Strategy Attributes for Increasing Share the Road Knowledge Attribute Description Technical Attributes Target Expected Effectiveness Keys to Success Potential Difficulties Appropriate Measures and Data Associated Needs Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, Institutional, and Policy Issues Issues Affecting Implementation Time Costs Involved Training and Other Personnel Needs Legislative Needs Other Key Attributes This strategy targets the general public, including all road users, but especially drivers in the presence of truck traffic. Effectiveness will not be immediate, but over time, as the public becomes aware of how to drive around heavy trucks, there should be a reduction in truck–passenger vehicle crashes caused by passenger vehicles engaging in hazardous driving behaviors in the vicinity of trucks.
From page 52...
... Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing this Strategy Information and materials are available from several sources, including the FMCSA Outreach Division (202-493-0499)
From page 53...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES and public education. This program is described in more detail in the state profile accompanying this chapter.
From page 54...
... Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing this Strategy Virginia and Pennsylvania are among the states that have established strategic goals to educate both passenger vehicle and truck drivers on hazardous driving behaviors around other vehicles. Virginia's public information on Share the Road is available at www.dmv.state.va.us/webdoc/general/safety/motorcarrier.
From page 55...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES Objective 12.1 D -- Improve Maintenance of Heavy Trucks Vehicle maintenance is one of the most fundamental activities of commercial vehicle fleet safety management. The FMCSA and the states have various regulations and enforcement programs in place to ensure that vehicles have properly functioning equipment.
From page 56...
... FMCSR § 396.17 requires annual safety inspections of commercial vehicles, including both tractors and trailers, and roadside inspection programs are a continuous state activity to achieve adequate vehicle maintenance. Proper vehicle maintenance and a clean inspection record are considered fundamental by safety-conscious fleets.
From page 57...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing this Strategy More information on the Maryland PM program can be obtained from Administrative Officer Malcolm Rote, Maryland State Police (410-694-6116, mrote@mdsp.org)
From page 58...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES V-36 EXHIBIT V-10 Strategy Attributes for Conducting Postcrash Inspections to Identify Major Problems and Problem Carriers Attribute Description Technical Attributes Target Expected Effectiveness Keys to Success Potential Difficulties Appropriate Measures and Data Associated Needs Policy and program personnel in public agencies that will benefit from details regarding unsafe trucks operating on public highways. This is an experimental strategy.
From page 59...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing this Strategy Michigan conducted this strategy for about 4 years but then discontinued it due to its expense, a need to redirect human resources participating in FACT, lack of demand for the data, and the consideration that FMCSA was launching a similar and broader study. There are no current plans to reinstate the program.
From page 60...
... Objective 12.1 E -- Identify and Correct Unsafe Roadway Infrastructure and Operational Characteristics General Description The physical and operational characteristics of large trucks often place them near the safety limits imposed by highway geometric design and the traffic environment (Harwood et al., 2003a and 2003b)
From page 61...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES Many of the strategies that are applicable here are covered in other guides in this series: • 15.1 Run-Off-Road Crashes • 15.2 Crashes on Highway Curves • 18.1 Head-On Crashes Some of the strategies that are applicable to these problems would involve a major reconstruction effort. Since the orientation of the AASHTO guides is toward low-cost, shortterm solutions, the most extensive and costly countermeasures are not discussed here.
From page 62...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES V-40 how vehicle-based technologies may be used to complement infrastructure signage and other countermeasures. Of course, fundamental limitations of such vehicle-based systems are that they take years to be deployed in the vehicle fleet, and their implementation depends mainly on truck buyers ordering them at the time of vehicle purchase.
From page 63...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing this Strategy The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PENNDOT) Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering is currently pursuing this strategy to identify highway stretches characterized by large numbers of truck crashes and to implement this strategy to address the problem.
From page 64...
... Highway ramps or curves that experience a high incidence of truck rollovers can be identified from state highway crash files. Interactive signs that include highway detectors can be installed at identified locations (Bushman and Lindsay, 2002)
From page 65...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES V-43 EXHIBIT V-12 Schematic of an Interactive Truck Rollover Advisory System and Photograph of Dynamic Display Provided by the PENNDOT Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering.
From page 66...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES V-44 EXHIBIT V-13 Strategy Attributes for Installing Interactive Truck Rollover Signing Attribute Description Technical Attributes Target Expected Effectiveness Keys to Success Potential Difficulties Appropriate Measures and Data Associated Needs Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, Institutional, and Policy Issues Issues Affecting Implementation Time Costs Involved Training and Other Personnel Needs Legislative Needs Other Key Attributes This strategy targets trucks operating at unsafe speeds on highway ramps or curves identified as having a high incidence of truck rollovers. It is anticipated that truck drivers will respond appropriately to an interactive sign warning them that they are exceeding a safe speed for the highway location.
From page 67...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES Strategy 12.1 E3: Modify Speed Limits and Increase Enforcement to Reduce Truck and Other Vehicle Speeds General Description An obvious rationale for reducing posted speed limits is to reduce average speeds, with resulting reductions in crash incidence and/or average crash severity (Stuster et al., 1998) , although relationships between posted speeds and prevailing operating speeds are not always strong (Fitzpatrick et al., 2003)
From page 68...
... in roadway characteristics or surrounding land use since the last review.
From page 69...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing this Strategy In 1996, Colorado raised its Interstate highway speed limit to 75 mph. Since that time, traffic volumes have dramatically increased in some areas of the state.
From page 70...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES V-48 State Fiber System JudicialDPS DOTLaw Enforcement Vehicle Federal Databases TraCS Law Enforcement Database Accidents Driver RecordsCommercial Vehicle Inspections DOT Databases Courts DPS Criminal Reporting Database DPS = department of public safety. available rapidly and in complete and accurate form.
From page 71...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES V-49 EXHIBIT V-14 Strategy Attributes for Increasing the Timeliness, Accuracy, and Completeness of Truck Safety Data Attribute Description Technical Attributes Target Expected Effectiveness Keys to Success Potential Difficulties Appropriate Measures and Data This strategy targets law enforcement and members of the traffic safety system who are making planning, operational, and maintenance decisions that affect large trucks. This strategy addresses a support system.
From page 72...
... Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing this Strategy Specific agencies, in addition to the Iowa DOT, that are involved in testing and implementing the national model effort may be found at http://www.iacptechnology.org/Programs/ NationalModel.htm. Information may also be obtained from Mary Jensen, TraCS Program Manager, Motor Vehicle Division, Iowa DOT (515-237-3235, mary.jensen@dot.state.ia.us)
From page 73...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES Objective 12.1 G -- Promote Industry Safety Initiatives Strategy 12.1 G1: Perform Safety Consultations with Carrier Safety Management General Description Enforcement strategies are intended to ensure that all motor carriers and drivers comply with certain fundamental safety requirements, ranging from driver medical condition and other qualifications, driver hours-of-service compliance, vehicle condition, highway speed compliance, and compliance with other carrier operational and traffic regulations. Federal, state, and local enforcement activities lay the foundation for ensuring a safe industry and for identifying and punishing noncompliant carriers and drivers.
From page 74...
... manner. In ACES, specially trained officers visit fleets using an advisory rather than an enforcement approach.
From page 75...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES fleets is that it is not related to enforcement and cannot result in punitive consequences to the carrier. Consultation with the fleet owner or safety manager might include the following: • Review of the carrier operation, including staffing levels, equipment, driver files, and insurance; • Review of the fleet's approach to compliance with key Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs)
From page 76...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES V-54 EXHIBIT V-15 Strategy Attributes for Safety Consultation with Carrier Safety Management Attribute Description Technical Attributes Target Expected Effectiveness Keys to Success Potential Difficulties Appropriate Measures and Data Associated Needs Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, Institutional, and Policy Issues Issues Affecting Implementation Time Costs Involved Training and Other Personnel Needs Legislative Needs Other Key Attributes The primary target is motor carrier fleet owners and safety directors. Various fleet safety management practices are among the most salient discriminators between safe and unsafe fleets (Corsi and Barnard, 2003)
From page 77...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing this Strategy Below are information sources for various safety consultation programs described above: • Tennessee ACES program: Captain Steve Binkley, Tennessee Department of Safety (615-687-2317, steve.binkley@state.tn.us)
From page 78...
... system's Web site (truck.eaton.com/vorad)
From page 79...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES motor carrier fleet safety managers, Knipling et al.
From page 80...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES V-58 EXHIBIT V-17 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Promoting Development and Deployment of Truck Safety Technologies Attribute Description Keys to Success Potential Difficulties Appropriate Measures and Data Associated Needs Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, Institutional, and Policy Issues Issues Affecting Implementation Time Costs Involved Training and Other Personnel Needs Legislative Needs Other Key Attributes Because this strategy is focused upon new technologies, their impact on fleet safety is initially going to be considered experimental.
From page 81...
... SECTION V -- DESCRIPTIONS OF STRATEGIES Information on Agencies or Organizations Currently Implementing this Strategy Among the organizations involved nationally in promoting the use of truck safety technologies are NHTSA, FMCSA, the U.S. DOT Intelligent Transportation System Joint Program Office, the Truck Manufacturers Association, SAE (http://heavyduty.sae.org/)

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