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Pages 5-20

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From page 5...
... 9-5 Recent frequency elasticity observations have tended to group around either +0.3 or +1.0. Those that are grouped around +1.0 are suburban systems that have undertaken carefully planned, comprehensive expansion programs, in an atmosphere of good public image and a growing or at least stable economy.
From page 6...
... 9-6 demographic environment, and the time period of the day or week. There is evidence that some of these variables affect ridership response in a predictable way, especially pre-existing frequencies and time of day (Holland, 1974; Mayworm, Lago and McEnroe, 1980)
From page 7...
... 9-7 Table 9-1 Bus Route or Small System Headway Elasticities Observed in the 1960s/70s Route / Service Territory Headway Elasticity Months After Implementation Massachusetts Demonstrationsa Boston-Milford suburban route (new headway approx. hourly)
From page 8...
... 9-8 Differentiation by Service Level A 1980 exploration of the causes of headway elasticity variations utilized a data set produced from essentially the same case studies as those listed in Table 9-1, but designed to give nonMassachusetts sites somewhat more emphasis. Separate calculations were made, where possible, of peak and off-peak headway elasticities.
From page 9...
... 9-9 Table 9-3 Bus Service Elasticities for Frequency Changes Observed in the 1980s/90s Transit System or Route Time Span Headway Change (Minutes) Service Measure Arc Elasticity Notes and Comments Vancouver, WA to Portland, OR 1980 Mixed, e.g., 19-23 to 10-15; AM peak Peak buses +0.33 (all hours)
From page 10...
... 9-10 A system that has focused local bus service expansion primarily on frequency and service hours enhancements is Santa Clarita Transit, serving outlying suburbs of Los Angeles. Local service revenue hours were increased by 66 percent and miles by 99 percent in the five years from FY 1992-93 through FY 1997-98.
From page 11...
... 9-11 For additional estimates of service elasticities, based primarily on time-series data, refer to the "Frequency Changes with Fare Changes" subsection. Sensitivity Indicators It may be concluded that response to bus service frequency improvements tends to be greatest when the prior frequency was less than three buses or so per hour (Pratt and Bevis, 1971)
From page 12...
... 9-12 Table 9-4 Commuter Rail Demonstration Project Impacts and Overall Service Elasticities Location Railroad Demonstration Phase Increase in Service Increase in Ridership Implied Arc Elasticity Philadelphia Reading Final 9.2% 8.6% +0.9 Boston Boston & Maine 2 77% 37.5% +0.6 Boston New Haven 2 26% 11.5% +0.5 Note: Mid-point arc elasticities; calculated disregarding effects of fare changes and marketing. Sources: Philadelphia Demonstration -- Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (1971)
From page 13...
... 9-13 Underground exhibits a miles operated service elasticity of +0.08, just under half that for London buses (London Transport, 1993)
From page 14...
... 9-14 Frequency Changes with Fare Changes Frequency Versus Fare Sensitivities Results of urban transit frequency changes implemented in connection with fare changes suggest that either type of change may have the greater impact depending on circumstances. Statistical analysis covering two years of fare and service changes in greater Dallas revealed greater sensitivity to fares than service in the center city, and the converse in the suburbs, for both suburban express and local services (Allen, 1991)
From page 15...
... 9-15 Mutually Reinforcing Fare and Frequency Changes Fare increases together with service reductions obviously lead to ridership loss at the same time as they offer cost savings potential. In the District of Columbia, institution of a 25¢ Metrorail to bus transfer charge and an increase of approximately 70 percent in elderly and disabled and other reduced fares, along with service reductions, led to a bus ridership decline of 11 percent on weekdays and 14 percent on weekends averaged over the first 2 full months.
From page 16...
... 9-16 Express Service Options In situations where the provision of new or expanded express bus service has resulted in increased overall frequency of service from residential areas to the central business district (CBD) , ridership increases have exhibited service elasticities on the order of +0.9.
From page 17...
... 9-17 It is notable that many successful restructurings of small city bus service and midday commuter service have employed "clockface" scheduling as one aspect of the overall design (Dueker and Stoner, 1972; Dueker and Stoner, 1971; Mass Transportation Commission et al., 1964; Tri-State, 1966)
From page 18...
... 9-18 Timed-Transfer Findings In Portland, Oregon's Westside community, two transit centers were used as part of a network redesign. A timed-transfer system was successfully implemented in the summer of 1979.
From page 19...
... 9-19 attributes listed. Similar surveys in Boston and Chicago placed "arrival at intended time" above travel time, waiting time and cost measures.
From page 20...
... 9-20 Schedule reliability is in fact demonstrated to save regular commuters even more time than the assumption of random passenger arrivals at the transit stop would indicate. A study of ten bus stops in London found that where bus arrival times were consistent, passenger waiting times tended to be less than that expected based on random arrivals.

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