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From page 18...
... 18 3.1 Objectives and Tasks The objectives of this research study were to: 1. Identify and evaluate the accuracy of NLR measurement methods for non-compatible structures.
From page 19...
... Research Approach 19 3.1.3 Task 3 -- Acoustical Field Measurements The objective for the field measurements was to focus on the quality of the research versus the quantity of measurements. This means taking a thorough approach to each individual home's noise assessment, which provided greater data for the analysis.
From page 20...
... 20 Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs finalize the noise reduction calculation, two corrections are then applied: a correction to account for the specific noise "signature" of aircraft and a correction to account for the reverberant field created when noise from the loudspeaker impinges upon a building façade. These corrections and their effect on the data are discussed in detail in Chapter 4.
From page 21...
... Research Approach 21 independent sources of uncertainty, assuming normality, will be combined into an estimate of the total uncertainty. Group members (all the houses that have the same measurement method)
From page 22...
... 22 Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs sound intensity is defined as the sound power per unit area. Thus, sound has both magnitude and direction.
From page 23...
... Research Approach 23 3.2.1.3 Frequency Weighting Many rating methods exist to analyze sounds of different spectra. The simplest method, A-weighting, is widely used internationally so that measurements can be made and assessed using basic acoustical instrumentation.
From page 24...
... 24 Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs symbol Leq. Equivalent sound level is that constant sound level containing the same acoustic energy as the varying sound level during the same time period.
From page 25...
... Research Approach 25 for evening noise making CNEL values typically 0.5 dB to 1 dB greater than the DNL value for the same noise measurement. 3.2.2 Sound Propagation 3.2.2.1 Sources There are two kinds of sources considered when dealing with airport noise: (1)
From page 26...
... 26 Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs The air absorption only reaches about 1 dB per kilometer in the 250 Hz octave band, being lower than this 1 dB rate at lower frequencies. The air absorption generally increases with temperature up through the 1,000 Hz octave band and then begins to reverse the order and by the 8,000 Hz octave band, the air absorption decreases with temperature.
From page 27...
... Research Approach 27 Design approaches include: • Designing a room to achieve a ≥5-dB DNLR and a DNL ≤45 dB. • Applying a uniform noise reduction treatment standard to create a homogeneous building envelope using consistent treatments.
From page 28...
... 28 Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs more than the standard sound TL level; in these cases the windows provide less noise reduction than the façade. Given differences in room exposure, there has been considerable discussion as to how the minimum 5-dB NLR improvement criterion is to be applied in sound insulation programs.
From page 29...
... Research Approach 29 Several prediction methods may be used to compute the TL properties of building elements and assemblies. These models incorporate the mass, stiffness, geometry, mechanical isolation, and acoustic isolation properties of the building assembly.
From page 30...
... 30 Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs 3.3.6 The Acoustical Design Process The acoustical consultant plays a key role throughout the acoustical design process, extending from the project planning phase through conceptual and detail design, construction consulting, acoustical testing, and project performance reporting to the FAA. After selection of program structures for treatment, the acoustical consultant performs preretrofit acoustical testing of representative structures in the program.
From page 31...
... Research Approach 31 The following are typical acoustical treatments for building elements and systems: • Replacement of windows with sound-rated windows. • Replacement of exterior doors into habitable/occupied spaces with sound-rated entry doors, or addition of sound-rated storm doors over new or existing doors.
From page 32...
... 32 Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs scenario, while manually deleting non-aircraft acoustic events. Since this is infeasible, testing methods that allow for data generation that can be further analyzed by computer models are a benefit for an acoustical testing program.
From page 33...
... Research Approach 33 3.5 Overview of Tested Homes 3.5.1 San Diego Homes The following pages offer pertinent details of the homes measured around San Diego International Airport. Residence San Diego #1 Measurement Date July 14, 2014 Rooms Measured Living room, dining room Residence Type Single family house Roof Type Gable roof with wood trusses and asphalt composite shingles Exterior Wall Type Exterior wall thickness of 5 1/2" consisng of 2 X 4 wood studs and two layers of wood shingles Interior Wall Type Painted gypsum board interior finish Door Wood panel "Hollywood" doors with half lite of 3/16" thick glazing Window Type Typical window is single pane with glazing thickness of 1/8"–3/16" Ceilings/Floors Ceiling height of 8' 0", wood floors with area rugs Residence San Diego #2 Measurement Date July 14, 2014 Rooms Measured Living room, office (bedroom 4, above living room)
From page 34...
... 34 Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs Exterior Wall Type Exterior wall thickness of 5 1/2" consisng of 2 X 4 wood studs and stucco exterior finish Interior Wall Type Painted gypsum board interior finish Door Wood flush solid entry door, rear wood "Hollywood" door with half lite of 1/8"thick glazing Window Type Typical window is single pane with glazing thickness of 1/8" Ceilings/Floors Ceiling height of 8' 0", wood floors with linoleum in kitchen Residence San Diego #4 Measurement Date July 15, 2014 Rooms Measured Living room, bedroom 1 Residence Type Single family house, one of four detached units on lot Roof Type Gable roof with asphalt composite shingles Exterior Wall Type Exterior wall thickness of 4 3/8" consisng of 2 X 4 wood studs and wood siding Interior Wall Type Painted gypsum board interior finish Door Wood glass panel door with 1/8" thick glazing at entry, rear wood flush solid door Window Type Typical window is dual pane with glazing thickness of 1/8" around 1/2" airspace Ceilings/Floors Ceiling height of 8' 3", wood floors with area rugs Residence San Diego #5 Measurement Date July 16, 2014 Rooms Measured Living room, front bedroom 1 Residence Type Single family house Roof Type Flat built up roof Exterior Wall Type Exterior wall thickness of 7" consisng of 2 X 6 wood studs and stucco exterior finish Interior Wall Type Painted lath and plaster interior finish Door Wood panel solid entry door with peep lite of 1/8" thickness Window Type Typical window is single pane with glazing thickness of 1/8" Ceilings/Floors Ceiling height of 8' 0" at top of vault, le floors with linoleum in bedrooms Residence San Diego #3 Measurement Date July 15, 2014 Rooms Measured Living room, master bedroom 3 (front of house, adjacent to living room) Residence Type Single family house Roof Type Hip roof with asphalt composite shingles
From page 35...
... Research Approach 35 Residence San Diego #6 Measurement Date July 16, 2014 Rooms Measured Living room, dining room Residence Type Mul family single story duplex unit Roof Type Flat built up roof Exterior Wall Type Exterior wall thickness of 5 1/4" consisng of 2 X 4 wood studs and stucco exterior finish Interior Wall Type Painted gypsum board interior finish Door Wood panel solid entry door Window Type Typical window is single pane with glazing thickness of 1/8"–1/4" Ceilings/Floors Ceiling height of 8' 0", wood floors with le in kitchen, laundry room, bathrooms Residence San Diego #7 Measurement Date July 17, 2014 Rooms Measured Living room, family room Residence Type Single family house Roof Type Gable roof with asphalt composite shingles Exterior Wall Type Exterior wall thickness of 4 5/8" consisng of 2 X 4 wood studs and wood siding Interior Wall Type Painted gypsum board interior finish Door Wood panel solid entry door, rear sliding glass door with 3/16" thick glazing Window Type Typical window is single pane with glazing thickness of 1/8" Ceilings/Floors Ceiling height of 8' 0", wood floors with le in kitchen, laundry room, andbathrooms Type exterior finish Interior Wall Type Painted gypsum board interior finish Door Wood panel solid entry door Window Type Typical window is single pane with glazing thickness of 1/8" Ceilings/Floors Ceiling height of 8' 0" except 9' 0" living room at top of vault, wood floors withle in kitchen Residence San Diego #8 Measurement Date July 17, 2014 Rooms Measured Dining room, master bedroom Residence Type Single family house Roof Type Flat built up roof Exterior Wall Exterior wall thickness of 6 1/2" consisng of 2 X 6 wood studs and stucco
From page 36...
... 36 Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs Residence San Diego #9 Measurement Date July 18, 2014 Rooms Measured Living room, bedroom 1 (first floor, bay window on le side) Residence Type Single family house Roof Type Gable roof with asphalt composite shingles Exterior Wall Type Exterior wall thickness of 5 1/4" consisng of 2 X 4 wood studs and wood siding, shingle accents Interior Wall Type Painted gypsum board interior finish Door Wood solid "Hollywood" entry door, rear wood glass "French" doors with 1/8"thick glazing Window Type Typical window is single pane with glazing thickness of 1/8" Ceilings/Floors Ceiling height of 9' 0" except 8' 0" family room, wood floors with le in kitchenand baths Residence San Diego #10 Measurement Date July 18, 2014 Rooms Measured Front bedroom 1, bedroom 2 (bound on right side, near entry)
From page 37...
... Research Approach 37 Residence Boston #1 Measurement Date July 28, 2014 Rooms Measured Living room, bedroom 2 (above rear deck) Residence Type Mul family two story duplex unit, upper floors of three story building Roof Type Flat built up roof Exterior Wall Type Exterior wall thickness of 6" consisng of 2 X 6 wood studs and vinyl siding Interior Wall Type Painted gypsum board interior finish Door Wood panel "Hollywood" entry door with glazing thickness of ~1/8" Window Type Typical window is dual pane with glazing thickness of 1/8" around 5/8" airspace Storm Window Type Aluminum storm windows 1 5/8" from main window, 1/8" glazing thickness Ceilings/Floors Ceiling height of 8' 0", wood floors with carpet in bedrooms Residence Boston #2 Measurement Date July 28, 2014 Rooms Measured Living room, bedroom 2 (above living room)
From page 38...
... 38 Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs Residence Type Mul family two story duplex unit, upper floors of three story building Roof Type Flat built up roof Exterior Wall Type Exterior wall thickness of 6" consisng of 2 X 6 wood studs and vinyl siding Interior Wall Type Painted gypsum board interior finish Door Wood panel "Hollywood" entry door with glazing thickness of ~1/8" Window Type Typical window is dual pane with glazing thickness of 1/8" around 5/8" airspace Storm Window Type Aluminum storm windows 1 5/8" from main window, 1/8" glazing thickness Ceilings/Floors Ceiling height of 8' 0", wood floors with carpet in bedrooms Residence Boston #4 Measurement Date July 30, 2014 Rooms Measured Second floor rear bedroom 2, third floor rear bedroom 4 Residence Type Mul family three story duplex unit Roof Type Flat built up roof Exterior Wall Type Exterior wall thickness of 8" consis ng of 2 X 6 wood studs and vinyl siding over wood shingles Interior Wall Type Painted gypsum board interior finish, insulated walls Door Wood "Hollywood" entry door Window Type Typical window is dual pane with glazing thickness of 1/8" around 5/8" airspace Storm Window Type Aluminum storm windows 3" from main window, 1/8" glazing thickness Ceilings/Floors Ceiling height of 8' 11" at first floor, 8' 3" above; wood floors with area rugs Residence Boston #5 Measurement Date July 30, 2014 Rooms Measured Living room, bedroom Residence Type Mul family unit, first floor of three story building Roof Type Flat built up roof Exterior Wall Type Exterior wall thickness of ~7" consis ng of 2 X 6 wood studs and vinyl siding over wood shingles Interior Wall Wood veneer interior finish Residence Boston #3 Measurement Date July 29, 2014 Rooms Measured Living room, front bedroom 1 (adjacent to living room) Type Door Wood "wagon wheel" entry door Window Type Typical window is dual pane with glazing thickness of 1/8" around 5/8" airspace Storm Window Type Aluminum storm windows 3" from main window, 1/8" glazing thickness Ceilings/Floors Ceiling height of 9' 0", wood floors with area rugs in bedrooms
From page 39...
... Research Approach 39 Residence Boston #6 Measurement Date July 31, 2014 Rooms Measured Dining room, rear bedroom 2 (above kitchen) Residence Type Single family house Roof Type Gable roof with asphalt composite shingles Exterior Wall Type Exterior wall thickness of 7" consisng of 2 X 6 wood studs and vinyl siding over wood shingles Interior Wall Type Painted gypsum board interior finish Door Solid wood "Hollywood" entry door with dual pane 1/8" glazing around 1/4"airspace Window Type Typical window is dual pane with glazing thickness of 1/8" around 5/8" airspace Storm Window Type Aluminum storm windows 3"–4" from main window, 1/8" glazing thickness Ceilings/Floors Ceiling height of 7' 10", wood floors with area rugs in dining room Residence Boston #7 Measurement Date July 31, 2014 Rooms Measured Living room, master bedroom Residence Type Mul family two story duplex unit, upper floors of three story building Roof Type Gable roof with asphalt composite shingles Exterior Wall Type Exterior wall thickness of 7" consisng of 2 X 6 wood studs and vinyl siding over wood shingles Interior Wall Type Painted gypsum board interior finish Door Wood panel entry door with storm door Window Type Typical window is dual pane with glazing thickness of 1/8" around 5/8" airspace Storm Window Aluminum storm windows 3" from main window, 1/8"-glazing thickness Type Ceilings/Floors Ceiling height of 8' 10", wood floors with area rugs
From page 40...
... 40 Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs Residence Boston #8 Measurement Date August 1, 2014 Rooms Measured Living room, study (adjacent to living room) Residence Type Single family house Roof Type Gable roof with asphalt composite shingles Exterior Wall Type Exterior wall thickness of 6 1/2" consisng of 2 X 6 wood studs and vinyl siding Interior Wall Type Painted gypsum board interior finish, insulated walls Door Solid wood "wagon wheel" entry door with ~1/8" glazing thickness Window Type Typical window is dual pane with glazing thickness of 1/8" around 5/8" airspace Storm Window Type Aluminum storm windows 3" from main window, 1/8" glazing thickness Ceilings/Floors Ceiling height of 10' 9" except 7' 6" study, wood floors with area rugs in livingroom Residence Boston #9 Measurement Date August 1, 2014 Rooms Measured Living room, bedroom (above living room)

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