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1 Introduction
Pages 11-16

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From page 11...
... Marine mammal literature to encompass both aggregate exposure mammal populations exist in environments that are being and cumulative risk. For example, noise has been considaltered simultaneously by various combinations of human ered to have cumulative effects when an animal is exposed activities and their effects, such as pollution and habitat to multiple noise sources, such as shipping plus seismic.
From page 12...
... Most biologists require consideration of cumulative effects during the conthink of effects accumulating when individual animals or sultation process. The regulations promulgated under the populations are repeatedly exposed to the same or different ESA define "cumulative effects" as "those effects of future stressors, taking into consideration natural factors that may State or private activities, not involving Federal activities, affect the response to human activities.
From page 13...
... , was specifically tasked with current understanding of cumulative effects of anthropogenic assessing progress in research on effects of low-frequency stressors, including sound, on marine mammals, to assess sound on seals and cetaceans since 1994, with an evaluation current methodologies, and to identify new approaches that of the marine mammal research program associated with may improve the ability to estimate cumulative effects.
From page 14...
... The committee will conduct a workshop to identify and measure animals' exposure to stressors and and review the present scientific understanding of their responses. The committee was particularly interested cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors on in efforts developed for human and terrestrial ecosystems marine mammals with a focus on anthropogenic sound.
From page 15...
... The committee reviewed studies of interactions and anticipating the cumulative effects of multiple stressors of multiple stressors and discussed the challenges of apply- on marine mammal populations and discusses a suite of ing the findings from these studies to management of marine population-monitoring parameters that could facilitate the mammals and their environment. The chapter examines how early detection of unexpected population declines and, where multiple stressors are likely to interact, and then identifies possible, the rapid diagnosis of the main factors contributing approaches for prioritizing stressors for cumulative effects to them.

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