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7 Early Warning Signs of Risk to Populations
Pages 79-84

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From page 79...
... First, there are many cases where the above criteria will measured with sufficient accuracy and precision that there not be met and adaptive management will not be helpful. is a good chance a deleterious change of magnitude large Second, as described in Chapter 6, there is a strong potential enough to cause concern will be detected (i.e., good statis for "ecological surprises," for example, unexpected declines tical power, if a statistical hypothesis test is the detection in species that had not previously been considered to be of mechanism)
From page 80...
... that causes reproductive failure or juvenile mortality, or any One possibility sometimes suggested for obtaining more beneficial management action, will take a very long time precise estimates of population status is to measure indices to cause a significant population trend. However, the main of population size, such as uncalibrated acoustic detections issue is that population (or stock)
From page 81...
... Many demographic parameters own survival and hence maximize their future reproductive can be estimated from an intensive capture–recapture survey; output when conditions may be better. Therefore, there is an typically for marine mammals this involves photographic expectation that adult female survival will remain high and identification, although genetic identification from biopsies relatively constant in fluctuating environments, while fecun- or fecal samples (or even potentially blow samples)
From page 82...
... Passive as well as reviewing some of the various indices used to health surveillance focuses on in-depth investigation of assess individual health. However, it is important to distin- disease incidence and for wild marine mammals is generally guish between assessing the health of an individual versus conducted using carcasses or tissues collected from stranded assessing the health of a population, the latter being focused animals.
From page 83...
... are being pur sued using sampling matrices that can be remotely collected Recommendation 7.2: A real-time, nationally centralized (blow, skin/blubber; reviewed by Hunt et al., 2013) , but system for reporting marine mammal health data should characterization of expression profiles is still in its infancy, be established.
From page 84...
... that many population parameters for marine mammals are One important caveat here, just as with measuring measured with such low precision that detecting any signal demographic parameters, is that care needs to be taken not to among the noise may be nearly impossible. misinterpret poor health caused by natural demographic pro- Levin and Möllmann (2015)

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