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2 Setting the Context
Pages 5-10

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From page 5...
... Chan School of Public Health, director, Harvard School of Public Health Interdisciplinary Concentration on Women, Gender, and Health, and the statements have not been endorsed or verified by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Krieger's presentation "Embodied history + structured chance + flexible phenotype = ∑ ‘causes' always >100%" presented material that will be part of a future publication; thus, a speaker-prepared synopsis is provided in lieu of a more detailed summary of the speaker's remarks, along with an extensive bibliography to which the speaker referred to in her remarks, which is found in Appendix C
From page 6...
... RESEARCH DESIGNS AND FRAMEWORKS FOR POPULATION HEALTH IMPROVEMENT To inform the discussions about research agendas for population health improvement, Paula Lantz of the University of Michigan provided a brief background on research designs, highlighted some of the current debates in the field of population health science, and offered a framework for identifying population health research priorities and actions (highlights are presented in Box 2-1)
From page 7...
... Basic components of a research design are the following: • Purpose -- to explore, describe, or explain • Topic • Unit of analysis, such as individual or micro level, organizational or mezzo level, and population or macro level • Time dimension -- cross-sectional or longitudinal • Comparisons over time or across groups Strong research designs are essential for explanatory research. The randomized controlled trial is the gold standard experimental design for studying causal relationships, Lantz said.
From page 8...
... Exchanges such as the one she experienced on Twitter reveal some of the issues with media coverage and the translation of research findings to the public, Lantz said, but they may also reflect some of the disciplinary differences in research design and methods, and legitimate concerns about the evidence required to establish a causal relationship. IDENTIFYING RESEARCH NEEDS VERSUS DISSEMINATION NEEDS Setting a research agenda for population health involves understanding disciplinary strengths and differences, and embarking on interdisciplinary research that creates new approaches and insights.
From page 9...
... She suggested, for example, that there is strong evidence on the public health effects of climate change and gun violence, but weak action, including policy interventions, as these are highly politicized issues. As another example, Lantz placed the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.)

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