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1 Introduction
Pages 9-13

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From page 9...
... Cities are extremely diverse in terms of their size, spatial structure, employment patterns, level of economic development, natural resource availability, and social fabric. In addition, each country defines a city according to its own criteria, including a combination of administrative, population size or density, economic, and urban characteristics (e.g., paved streets, water-supply 1  In the United States, sustainability is commonly defined as follows: "to create and maintain conditions, under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social, economic, and other requirements of present and future generations" (National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [NEPA, 2000]
From page 10...
... Whatever the precise definition, cities across the world are embracing the concept of urban sustainability, including addressing the challenges of rapid population growth and its impacts on limited natural resources. An BOX 1-1 Defining Urban Sustainability In the process of researching, discussing, and drafting this report, the committee adopted the follow ing general definition: Urban sustainability is the process by which measureable improvement of near- and long-term human well-be ing can be achieved through actions across environmental (resource consumption with environmental impact)
From page 11...
... and Catherine T MacArthur Foundation, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration formally requested that the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine undertake a study that used examples from metropolitan regions to understand how sustainability practices could contribute to the development, growth, and regeneration of major metropolitan regions in the United States.
From page 12...
... •  can better integrate science, technology, and research into catalyzing and supporting sustainability initiatives; The commonalities, strengths, and gaps in knowledge among rating systems that assess the sus •  tainability of metropolitan regions; and •  paradigm that would incorporate the critical systems needed for sustainable development in A metropolitan regions. In carrying out this charge and preparing its report with findings and recommendations, the study committee will • Describe and assess the linkages among research and development, hard and soft infrastructure, and innovative technology for sustainability in metropolitan regions; • Describe the countervailing factors that inhibit or reduce regional sustainability and resilience and identify steps that can be taken to reverse or mitigate the factors; • Describe and assess the future economic drivers, as well as the assets essential to and barriers that hinder sustainable development and redevelopment; and • Examine how federal, state, and local agency and private-sector efforts and partnerships can complement or leverage the efforts of key stakeholders and assess the role of public and private initiatives that may serve as a model for moving forward.
From page 13...
... The city descriptions end with a series of observations and recommendations based on that city. The final chapter distills these city observations and recommendations in view of the principles outlined earlier to produce a series of generalizable recommendations for a new approach to urban sustainability.

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