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3 Disability Names and Numbers
Pages 17-22

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From page 17...
... Since the 1950s, the National Health Interview Survey has been asking parents about activity limitations in their children. In 1960, parents reported that less than 2 percent of children had an activity limitation due to a chronic health condition.
From page 18...
... Nevertheless, said Durkin, "there's no doubt that the improvements in survival, especially of children with special health care needs, during this time period have contributed to increases in prevalence." As an example she cited Down syndrome, which is a common cause of developmental disability and complex health and educational needs. In 1960, the average life expectancy for a child with Down syndrome was estimated at about 10 years; today, due to advances in health care and other services, it is about 60 (Leonard et al., 2000)
From page 19...
... Many other data sources reflect the same trend of increasing disability rates among young people. According to the National Health Interview Survey, the percentage of children with developmental disabilities has risen since the 1990s, with the greatest increases in autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Boyle et al., 2011)
From page 20...
... From a utilitarian perspective, which calls for the greatest good for the greatest number, a system with high inequality, health disparities, and suffering of a minority, including people with disabilities, may be acceptable if it produces maximum benefit for the population overall. Contractarianism emphasizes implicit social contracts, Durkin said.
From page 21...
... recommends, "for every child who is blind, deaf, crippled, or otherwise physically handicapped, and for the child who is mentally handicapped, such measures as will early discover and diagnose his handicap, provide care and treatment, and so train him that he may become an asset to society rather than a liability. Expenses of these services should be borne publicly where they cannot be privately met." More recent examples of contractarianism include the expansion of the Supplementary Security Income Program to children with disabilities
From page 22...
... The ADA defines disability as a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities of an individual, with an expected duration of not less than 6 months.1 The Supplemental Security Income Program defines disability as "a medically determinable physical or mental impairment, which results in marked and severe functional limitations, and which can be expected to result in death or which has lasted or can be expected to last for a continuous period of not less than 12 months."2 The CSHCN states that disability is consequence based and characterized by the need for or use of health care or special education for chronic conditions. 1  ADA Amendments Act of 2008, PL 110-325 (S 3406)

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