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3 Successful Disposition Case Studies
Pages 47-76

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From page 47...
... management and disposal within current regulatory frameworks. The case studies presented situations in which previously challenging LLW streams1 were successfully managed and disposed of.
From page 48...
... For inter­ ational case studies, Miklos (Mike) Garamszeghy, design authority and n manager of technology assessment and planning for the Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization, provided two examples from Canada and Gérald Ouzounian, international director for the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA)
From page 49...
... The sludge contained 36 curies of total radionuclides, including 2.5 to 6.5 curies of TRU radionuclides. The concentration of the long-lived TRU radionuclides in the final waste packages ranged from 11.5 to 65.5 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g)
From page 50...
... The disposal facility reviews the waste profiles to confirm the waste is compliant with the WAC of the disposal site. 8  "Application for License to Authorize Near Surface Disposal of Low-level Radio­ctive a Waste, Appendix 5.2-1: Waste Acceptance Plan Revision 9," see Section 5.2: Waste Profile A ­ pproval, accessed February 25, 2017, http://www.wcstexas.com/wp-content/­ ploads/2016/01/ u Waste-Acceptance-Plan.pdf.
From page 51...
... FIGURE 3-2 Schematic of the H2 tank vault area including SPRU processing contamination enclosures consisting of the outer enclosure (Area H2 Tent) , the existing Big Top Tent, and two smaller tents for the sludge waste retrieval and processing (the Tank Containment Retrieval and Solidification Containment Tents)
From page 52...
... Within the Big Top Tent are two additional tents, the Tank Containment Retrieval and Solidification Containment Tents (see Figure 3-2)
From page 53...
... • Addressing waste classification uncertainties. DOE performed his torical research and additional evaluations to show that the sludge waste was not high-level waste and could be managed as LLW.
From page 54...
... The sports agent repeatedly asks the athlete to "Help me, help you." The goal of the memorandum of understanding between Nevada and DOE is to "Help us, help you." The NNSS is located about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The Area 5 disposal facility is a secure, 740-acre site located in the southeast corner of the NNSS (see Figure 3-3)
From page 55...
... Original formatting for Figure 3‐3 (DOE‐EOM's NNSS Area 5 Site) FIGURE 3-3  Maps of the NNSS (left image)
From page 56...
... . Waste management decisions are usually handled on a case-by-case basis to ensure that waste streams are appropriate for disposal at the NNSS and that stakeholder concerns are addressed.
From page 57...
... He acknowledged that past LLW disposal decisions were likely made for expediency and were weighed against what disposal options and regulatory frameworks were available at the time. But it is incumbent upon us in the present day to improve the system, so that future stakeholders have much-needed context for the decision-making process, which may ultimately improve stakeholder confidence in LLW management and disposal decisions.
From page 58...
... The PHAI disposal facility is currently under construction. The Deep Geological Repository facility for low- and intermediate-level wastes is still in the regulatory approvals phase.
From page 59...
... In the past there was a Joint Review Panel, which was a project-specific panel set up jointly by the CNSC and the CEAA, to review environmental assessment applications and specific license applications. This process is no longer used for nuclear projects.
From page 60...
... The task force was unable to reach an agreement with a community in Canada to host a site primarily because of concerns about transporting large volumes of radioactive waste. In 1997, Hope Township initiated a proposal to construct a long-term waste management facility near the Port Hope site.
From page 61...
... is estab •  lished by the federal government to manage historic waste in the Town of Port Hope and across Canada 1988: The federal government establishes a Siting Task Force on Low-Level •  Radioactive Waste Management to site a permanent management facility for Port Hope area wastes 1988-1996: Siting Task Force invites all Ontario municipalities to consider •  hosting a long-term management facility for low-level radioactive waste. A few communities initially volunteer, but no agreement is reached 1997: Hope Township initiates a community proposal to construct a long-term •  waste management facility for wastes at the Welcome Waste Management Facility 1998: Port Hope and Clarington also develop proposals to establish long-term •  management facilities for low-level radioactive wastes within their communities 2000: The Government of Canada and Hope Township, Port Hope (now •  amalgamated to form the Municipality of Port Hope)
From page 62...
... After disposal operations begin, the compensation is akin to an annual fee. The environmental assessment and licensing documentation was submitted to the CSNC in April 2011, but Canadian federal elections delayed the appointment of the Joint Review Panel until January 2012.
From page 63...
... , are currently being sent to the 20  "ANDRA: Overview of national policy concerning radioactive waste management," accessed February 25, 2017, http://www.andra.fr/international/pages/en/menu21/national-­ramework/ f overview-of-national-policy-1593.html.
From page 64...
... level Intermediate level A few 108 Bq/g A few 108 Bq/g Waste stemming from UF recycling High level (CIGEO geological disposal facility in France 109 Bq/g > 109 Bq/g to be commissioned in 2025) FIGURE 3-4  Classification of radioactive waste streams in France.
From page 65...
... ; the disposal vault, which includes a network control gallery to control water that may flow through the disposal facility and final cover (the second barrier) ; and the geological environment, which has natural barriers such as 22  The Planning Act of June 28, 2006 on the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste specifies that the half-life cut-off between short-lived and long-lived waste is 31 years.
From page 66...
... Disposal area Source Draining layer Outlet Water table Impermeable layer FIGURE 3-6  The French near-surface radioactive waste disposal concept. SOURCE: Gérald Ouzounian, ANDRA.
From page 67...
... Mr. Applegate also commented that experience at the prior disposal facility (CSM)
From page 68...
... Alternatively, one could identify which characteristics are not important and are unnecessarily complicating waste disposal decisions. • Waste management practices.
From page 69...
... regulatory framework limits flexibility in strange ways because of competing regulatory structures. In order for the structure to change for the better, Dr.
From page 70...
... that can be used to explain waste management decisions to members of the public.
From page 71...
... Crowley appeared to have endorsed his idea of focusing on disposal facilities instead of the waste source. A disposal facility could develop WAC to which waste streams are matched.
From page 72...
... These modern sites might be suitable for disposal of challenging LLW waste streams that could not be disposed of in older facilities. It would be useful to assess the suitability of current regulatory requirements against these modern facilities.
From page 73...
... Garamszeghy to expand on his presentation about compensating the communities in which the Port Hope and Port Granby LLW facilities were sited. Was there a "general sense of fairness" argument?
From page 74...
... The current generation benefits from the electricity generated by nuclear power plants, so it should be responsible for solving the waste management problem for following generations. The law required that a master plan describing all the major milestones of the lifetime of each disposal facility be developed and periodically reviewed.
From page 75...
... Black commented that the "regulatory morass" that he referred to previously includes TRU waste. Defense TRU waste must be disposed of at WIPP, a deep geologic repository, but commercial waste containing less than 100 nCi/g of TRU nuclides can be disposed of in a near-surface disposal facility meeting the requirements of 10 CFR Part 61.


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