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3 Looking into the Future: Novel Uses of Emerging Neurotechnologies with Potential Legal Applications
Pages 25-30

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From page 25...
... The BRAIN Initiative and other national-level brain projects around the world, as well as ventures launched by companies in the private sector, have ushered in what Khara Ramos called "a transformative time for the development of novel neurotechnologies," which have enabled discovery of unexpected aspects of brain function. Although most of these new and emerging neurotechnologies are designed to better understand neurological deficits or provide benefits to patients -- not to answer legal questions -- they eventually may be applied in legal settings, said Sydney Cash, associate professor of neurology at Harvard Medical School, adding that 25
From page 26...
... CLOSED-LOOP DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION Aysegul Gunduz, director of the Brain Mapping Laboratory at the University of Florida, admitted that she had not considered the legal implications of her work until receiving an invitation to the workshop. Nonetheless, as she proceeded to describe the research conducted in her lab, several concepts emerged with potential application to the law.
From page 27...
... An example is for forensic evidence collection, said Gunduz, although those uses are far in the future and would need to overcome substantial ethical barriers. For example, placing electrodes deep in the brain could conceivably be used to detect lies, although fMRI studies show that the networks activated during the complicated act of lying cover a broad area of the brain not yet accessible to implantable electrodes, she said (Langleben et al., 2005)
From page 28...
... Using data captured from a microelectrode array implanted in the superior temporal gyrus brain, a multidisciplinary research team at Harvard–MIT and the University of California, San Diego, have shown that single neurons are tuned to specific phonemes, thus enabling spoken words to be decoded (Chan et al., 2014)
From page 29...
... A major challenge, he said, is analyzing the enormous amounts of multidimensional data collected in these experiments -- not only the neural activity data but behavioral data as well. Video recording allows them to collect information on types of movement, joint position, contextual information, and audio information; to decode that information; and to integrate it with neural data using sophisticated analytical approaches.

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