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4 Strategies for Educational Settings
Pages 115-164

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From page 115...
... We highlight both promotion and prevention programs addressing a range of MEB needs, many of which focus on enhancing social and emotional learning or teaching such contemplative practices as mindful awareness and yoga. 1 EARLY EDUCATION AND PRESCHOOL SETTINGS The value of high-quality early childhood care and education for improving MEB outcomes, especially among children at risk, has been well established, and includes long-term positive impacts on academic learning, socioemotional development, and health (Yoshikawa et al., 2013)
From page 116...
... . This section reviews research on the long-term effects of high-quality preschool and then turns to research on the promotion of social-emotional learning in preschool settings, including a new approach to teaching contemplative practices in early childhood educational settings.
From page 117...
... examined long-term outcomes for a subsample of children randomly assigned to attend the state-mandated Tennessee Preschool Program and followed this sample through 3rd grade. By the end of pre-K, program participants did indeed show better outcomes on measures of academic achievement and school readiness, compared with children who did not attend the state-mandated program.
From page 118...
... The goal of Early Head Start is to provide prenatal support to pregnant women, support healthy family functioning, and support the development of children from birth to age 3. Studies of the program have documented significant benefits for program participants, including improved parenting skills, vocabulary, and cognitive functioning, and superior socialemotional functioning among students and families who participated in the program (Administration for Children and Families, 2002, n.d.)
From page 119...
... These barriers will need to be addressed if preschool is to contribute to the healthy MEB development of children at a population level. Social-Emotional Learning in Early Childhood Education The past 15 years have seen a trend toward introducing academics in kindergarten, which in turn has increased concern that preschools need to better prepare children academically (Bassok, Latham, and Rorem, 2016)
From page 120...
... . Randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
From page 121...
... K–12 SETTINGS Interventions designed for the K–12 level include promotive programs, such as those intended to develop positive school climates or teach social and emotional skills, and programs targeted at specific problems, such as bullying and suicide, and populations of students at particular risk. Promotion of MEB Health School-wide programs that promote MEB health at the K–12 level are most commonly designed to improve the ways school staff respond to problem behaviors and to support the social-emotional learning of students.
From page 122...
... Promoting Social-Emotional Learning Increasingly, states are using the teaching of social-emotional learning skills to improve school climate and student engagement, and thereby promote healthy MEB development in schools: All 50 states now include social-emotional learning in their educational standards for preschool, and a growing number have adopted these standards for grades K–12 (Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning, 2018)
From page 123...
... A meta-analysis of universal social-emotional learning interventions found positive effects, including improvements in social skills, mental health, prosocial behaviors, academic achievement, and prevention of antisocial behavior and substance abuse (Sklad et al., 2012)
From page 124...
... . BOX 4-2 The Positive Action Social-Emotional Learning Curriculum Positive Action is a social-emotional learning curriculum delivered in grades K–12 that focuses on encouraging positive behavior, improving social emotional skills, and supporting a positive school climate (Positive Action, 2013)
From page 125...
... As with training for teachers in the delivery of social-emotional learning programs, mindfulness programs have varied in duration and intensity, from daily activities offered across the school year to limited-duration programs lasting for several weeks to several months. Conclusions from research on these programs to date have been limited by small samples, few rigorous RCTs, a lack of longitudinal data, measurement limitations, and a lack of fidelity monitoring.
From page 126...
... Several narrative and systematic reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effects of mindfulness and more general contemplative practices (including yoga) in school-age youth.
From page 127...
... of mindfulness approaches delivered in school settings also found evidence of effects on youths' cognitive performance, resilience, and stress measures. A recent random-effects meta-analysis examined studies of mindfulness-based interventions for children and adolescents up to October 2017 and showed significant positive impacts for mindfulness approaches in strengthening executive functioning and attention and reducing depression, anxiety, stress, and negative behaviors (Dunning et al., 2019)
From page 128...
... . Prevention Strategies Some school-based interventions foster healthy MEB development by focusing on the prevention of specific behavioral health conditions that affect individuals -- such as disruptive behavior disorders, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, depression, and substance use disorders -- as well as problems that affect the broader school community and result from multiple individual, social, and system conditions, such as bullying, violence, and suicide.
From page 129...
... . Other programs for which there is evidence of effectiveness include The Incredible Years Training Series, programs designed to reduce disruptive behavior and improve social-emotional learning and self regulation in children ages 0–12 (Baker-Henningham et al., 2012; Hutchings et al., 2013; Kirkhaug et al., 2016; McGilloway et al., 2010)
From page 130...
... . In addition to the effects on a student's biological and MEB development, these adverse experiences have been shown to be related to negative changes in academic performance, school attendance, disciplinary referrals, and graduation rates, which are outcomes of high priority for educators (Kataoka et al., 2012; Strøm et al., 2016)
From page 131...
... . A systematic review of school-based interventions for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder found 16 studies that used cognitive-behavioral therapy, 11 of which had effect sizes in the medium to large range (Rolfsnes and Idsoe, 2011)
From page 132...
... . Prevention programs generally have shown small but statistically significant effects in reducing depressive symptoms in children and adolescents (Ahlen, Lenhard, and Ghaderi, 2015; Calear and Christensen, 2010; Corrieri et al., 2014; Merry et al., 2011; Stice et al., 2009; Teubert and Pinquart, 2011; Werner-Seidler et al., 2017)
From page 133...
... Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of school-based programs targeting tobacco use have reported mixed findings. A meta-analysis of 16 trials of smoking prevention programs for girls did not find overall evidence for efficacy (de Kleijn et al., 2015)
From page 134...
... . Systematic reviews and meta-analyses highlight that diverse strategies can be effective for substance use prevention, although not all strategies are equally beneficial across different types of substances.
From page 135...
... . A number of the social-emotional learning interventions and universal interventions aimed at preventing disruptive behaviors discussed above also can prevent bullying; this section reviews only those programs for which outcomes related to bullying have been specifically measured.
From page 136...
... , however, concluded from their systematic review of school-based bullying prevention programs that results were mixed; 45 percent of studies showed no program effects on bullying perpetration, and the
From page 137...
... found that school-based programs consisting of classroom curricula and peer mediation, conflict resolution, and conduct behavior modification programs generally had moderate to strong effects on youth violence–related outcomes. Despite evidence of effective MEB health promotion and MEB disorder prevention programs, schools continue to use out-of-school discipline, such as suspension and expulsion, inappropriately for such common disruptive behaviors as defiance and noncompliance.
From page 138...
... . Increasing the use of strategies to improve school climate and social-emotional learning may mitigate overuse of out-of-school discipline (Osher et al., 2010)
From page 139...
... . BOX 4-6 Safe Dates Safe Dates is a 10-session dating violence prevention program implemented with middle and high school students that is designed to shift gender-based expectations and reduce physically violent dating behaviors (Foshee et al., 2005)
From page 140...
... . In a recent review of school-based suicide prevention programs, the authors conclude that data in support of suicide prevention in schools are limited, with only two programs -- Signs of Suicide and the Good Behavior Game -- demonstrating effects on reducing suicide attempts (Katz et al., 2013)
From page 141...
... Integration of programs to prevent emotional and behavioral problems with dropout prevention and academic achievement promotion strategies -- and assessment of emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes -- is also an important direction for future research, so that programs can be well aligned and efficiently integrated within school settings. POSTSECONDARY SETTINGS Prevention strategies have also been developed and tested in higher education settings.
From page 142...
... Five of the studies had a high risk of bias, and the authors concluded that the evidence was not sufficient to support any suicide prevention program or policy. SUMMARY Because young people spend so much of their time in school and are significantly influenced by their school experiences, this is a critical setting for efforts to both promote healthy MEB development and prevent MEB disorders.
From page 143...
... . A systematic review of school-based alcohol and other drug prevention programs.
From page 144...
... . Using social emotional and character development to improve academic outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled trial in low-income, urban schools.
From page 145...
... . Examining the effects of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools.
From page 146...
... . Outcomes from a school-randomized controlled trial of steps to respect: A bullying prevention program.
From page 147...
... . The safety of yoga: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
From page 148...
... . Research review: The effects of mindfulness-based interventions on cognition and mental health in children and adolescents -- a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
From page 149...
... Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 7(7)
From page 150...
... . Examining the impact of policy and practice interventions on high school dropout and school completion rates: A systematic review of the literature.
From page 151...
... Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (10)
From page 152...
... . A randomized controlled evaluation of a secondary school mindfulness program for early adolescents: Do we have the recipe right yet?
From page 153...
... . A systematic review of school-based suicide prevention programs.
From page 154...
... . Evaluation of the effectiveness of a smoking prevention program based on the "life skills training approach." Health Education Research, 28(4)
From page 155...
... . Promoting healthy lifestyles in high school adolescents: A randomized controlled trial.
From page 156...
... . One-year follow-up of a coach-delivered dating violence prevention program: A cluster randomized controlled trial.
From page 157...
... . A meta-analysis of school based bullying prevention programs' effects on bystander intervention behavior.
From page 158...
... . Enhancing cognitive and social emotional development through a simple-to-administer mindfulness-based school program for elementary school children: A randomized controlled trial.
From page 159...
... . Effectiveness of school-based preventive interventions on adolescent alcohol use: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
From page 160...
... . Effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention curricula: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
From page 161...
... . Teen dating violence (physical and sexual)
From page 162...
... . School-based depression and anxiety prevention programs for young people: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
From page 163...
... . Classroom-based interventions and teachers perceived job stressors and confidence: Evidence from a randomized trial in Head Start settings.


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