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How Lab Experiments with T Cells Brought a New Wave of Cancer Therapies
Pages 1-4

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From page 1...
... During the past century, that bold idea fueled a line of research leading to a revolutionary treatment strategy that earned a 2018 Nobel Prize and has effectively treated thousands of people with cancer. Traditionally, cancer patients have had three therapeutic options: cut it out (surgery)
From page 2...
... CTLA4's importance solidified when other groups genetically engineered mice without the protein. "The mice die of autoimmune disease if they lack CTLA4," says Harvard Medical School immunologist Arlene Sharpe, who generated one of these "gene knockout" mouse strains.
From page 3...
... remained apathetic Freeman and Sharpe teamed with Honjo's group and reasoned that blocking the dampening effect of PD-1 could boost recognition of tumor cells by the while the tumor immune system. Sure enough, Honjo's 2002 study confirmed that an anti-PD-L1 blocking antibody helped mice fight tumors.
From page 4...
... Dating back to Coley's century-old fascination with the infection-induced tumor regression, the growth of the cancer immunotherapy field presents a powerful example of how basic curiosity fuels fundamental discoveries that can ultimately produce life-prolonging therapies. This article was written by Esther Landhuis for From Research to Reward, a series produced by the National Academy of Sciences.

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