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From page 1...
... 1 A rapidly evolving area in the public transit industry is fare payment systems. One increasingly common component of new fare payment systems is a passenger-facing mobile fare payment application (or app)
From page 2...
... 2 Business Models for Mobile Fare Apps there are few examples of heavy rail services that offer mobile fare payment apps; this is likely due to the validation process, which is typically done via fare gates on heavy rail systems. • The primary method for validating fare products purchased through mobile fare payment apps is visual validation by a conductor, inspector, or driver.
From page 3...
... Summary 3 5. Chicago Transit Authority in Chicago, Illinois: This agency has an open payment, account-based fare payment system (accepts payment media such as bankcards)
From page 4...
... 4 Business Models for Mobile Fare Apps appears to have relatively low costs (both upfront and ongoing)

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