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4 Research on Approaches Critical to Managing Climate Risk
Pages 49-56

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From page 49...
... In addition, Chapter 3 introduced important social science needs required to understand how to achieve emissions reductions for policy design and through behavior change that include considerations of ethics, equity, technical potential, adoption, and path dependencies. Many strategies for reducing emissions or removing carbon from the atmosphere have implications for the kinds of risks noted in Chapter 2, underscoring the need for an integrated research approach.
From page 50...
... Other crucial channels of influence include leadership in the global institutions that coordinate discussions on the control of GHG emissions, formulate international climate developments, and marshal financial and technical aid for developing regions. Climate action within the private sector is a vital part of this engagement, because supply chains span the globe, and standards and practices adopted by firms in one nation often influence those employed elsewhere.
From page 51...
... , this fuller understanding of the global societal consequences of different levels of warming could inform additional actions to refine and meet mitigation targets. Achieving fuller understanding of the socioeconomic consequences of climate change is a major motivation for greater integration of multidisciplinary research, particularly natural and social sciences.
From page 52...
... on characterizing and verifying emissions are still relevant today, including: maintaining essential surface and satellite observations networks, supporting data assimilation systems, expanding gridded inventories, and coupling top-down and bottom-up approaches. Explore CO2 Removal, Reliable Sequestration, and Utilization Mitigating GHG concentrations necessarily involves cutting global GHG emissions.
From page 53...
... . ADAPTATION TO REDUCE RISKS Climate change currently affects the security of the American people and the nation across many systems including human health, food, water and energy, with projections concluding that, without considering adaptation, each additional unit of warming would further increase nearly all risks with the risks differentially affecting different ecosystems, regions, and human populations.
From page 54...
... . In addition, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, which is responsible for eleva tion mapping, designation of flood-prone areas, the National Flood Insurance Program, and the purchase of flood-prone housing, should enhance incorporation of sea level rise projections in its flood guidance to states and communities and work with states to improve retreat/relocation options.
From page 55...
... . Possible solar geoengineering approaches include widespread distribution of small reflective particles in the stratosphere, augmentation of reflective cloud cover in the lower atmosphere, or reduction of cirrus clouds in the upper troposphere that trap outgoing radiation.
From page 56...
... As such, the committee sees the potential for USGCRP to play a pivotal role in advancing this research, particularly if the Program takes steps to improve both its disciplinary representation and its efforts to engage stakeholders in defining research priorities. A NEED FOR INTEGRATED RESEARCH ON RISK-MANAGEMENT APPROACHES Integrated systems-based research is urgently needed to describe and quantify the complexities of interactions across sectors, regions, and decision-making entities, considering the interdependence, synergies, and trade-offs among mitigation, adaptation, solar geoengineering, and strategies to address other societal priorities.


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