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Appendix I: Report of the Panel on Electromagnetic Observations from Space 1
Pages 367-391

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From page 367...
... The panel also benefited from the National Academies Exoplanet Science Strategy report1 from 2018. The statement of task is given in Appendix A.2 The Astro2020 science panels outlined 24 questions and 6 discovery areas that will define progress for the next decade in astrophysics.
From page 368...
... should lead a large strategic direct imaging mission capable of measuring the reflected-light spectra of temperate terrestrial planets orbiting Sun-like stars. The EASS Panel states that searching for evidence of life "is only possible with a large highcontrast direct-imaging space telescope."3 Neither JWST, Roman WFIRST, nor the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs)
From page 369...
... is a strong motivator for providing panchromatic capabilities to the astronomical community in the coming decade. Some probe-class missions such as TAP seek to provide panchromatic capabilities in a single facility to address specific science themes.
From page 370...
... The Aerospace Corporation briefed the panel on its Technical Risk and Cost Evaluation results for LUVOIR B and two versions of HabEx at the panel's third meeting. The panel also had access to the Large Mission Concept Independent Assessment Team report on LUVOIR and HabEx, and the Probe Cost Assessment Team report on the NASA-funded probe studies.
From page 371...
... The mission is having both broad science impacts and an impact on operations of future missions with exquisite star positions that enable much better pointing than previously achievable. I.1.3 Approved Missions in Development The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)
From page 372...
... The survey will provide a statistical sample of exoplanetary atmospheres that can be used to address questions such as how the stellar environment affects exoplanet atmospheres, whether PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION I-6
From page 373...
... May enable breakthroughs in the size and robustness of focal plane instrumentation. I.1.5 Science Panel Inputs A crucial component in guiding the formulation of a program for the future is the identification of the most compelling science questions to be addressed in the next decade.
From page 374...
... The discovery area for the Panel on Galaxies is mapping the circumgalactic and intergalactic media in emission, which also requires UV spectroscopy at these wavelengths. TABLE I.1 Mapping of Flagships to Science Panel Questions and Discovery Areas Question LUVOIR-B HabEx-4H HabEx-3.2S COS-2 LUMOS UVS UVS GAL-1 LUMOS UVS, HWC UVS,HWC GAL-2 LUMOS UVS UVS GAL-3 LUMOS UVS UVS GAL-4 LUMOS, HDI UVS, HWC UVS,HWC ISP-1 LUMOS, HDI UVS UVS ISP-3 LUMOS,HDI UVS, HWC UVS,HWC PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION I-8
From page 376...
... Some probe-class missions such as TAP seek to provide panchromatic capabilities in a single facility to address specific science themes. Overall, the panel determined that there is strong scientific motivation for facilities, especially space-based, to provide the broadest wavelength coverage possible.
From page 377...
... category was the most difficult challenge presented to the panel, because all of the options under consideration proved to be significantly higher cost than even the most PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION I-11
From page 378...
... Emmons, 2019, "Challenges and Potential Solutions to Develop and Fund NASA Flagship Missions," pp. 1–13, 2019 IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT, March 2–9, 2019, doi: 10.1109/AERO.2019.8741920.
From page 379...
... . 6 NASA, The LUVOIR Final Report, 2019, NASA LUVOIR Mission Concept Study Team, https://asd.gsfc.nasa.gov/luvoir/reports/LUVOIR_FinalReport_2019-08-26.pdf.
From page 380...
... Central to discussing which of these missions is needed to achieve the science goals outlined by the science panels is the size of the telescope's primary mirror. The size of the primary mirror sets the angular resolution and the sensitivity achievable.
From page 383...
... Mission Team Cost Estimate TRACE Cost Estimate LUVOIR-B $12.2 billion $17 billion HabEx 4H $6.8 billion $10.5 billion HabEx 3.2S $5.0 billion $7.8 billion 12 NASA, 2019, The LUVOIR Final Report, NASA LUVOIR Mission Concept Study Team, https://asd.gsfc.nasa.gov/luvoir/reports/LUVOIR_FinalReport_2019-08-26.pdf.
From page 384...
... Approximately $130 million of this funding would be needed for the high-contrast coronagraph instrument as estimated in the LUVOIR final report. Given the outstanding science discoveries that these exoplanet missions can accomplish but only with critical technologies that need to reach TRL 6 or above in the next 5 years, the panel suggests that NASA fund the technology tasks outlined in the LUVOIR and HabEx reports and do so over the next 5-year period, which would then flow into detailed mission architecture studies that could be completed before the next decadal survey, A key decision is the size of the primary mirror, and whether a starshade will be included in the mission.
From page 385...
... There is significant overlap in the advancement of coronagraph-based technologies between LUVOIR and HabEx, and high-priority technologies to mature include better coronagraph architectures to increase science yield, adaptive wavefront control algorithms that are more efficient and improve tolerance to instabilities, vacuum-compatible deformable mirrors with more actuators, post-processing algorithms, and vacuum testing of the entire starlight suppression system. High-priority starshade technologies include demonstrating starshade petal accuracy and stability, performance modeling and validation, as well as demonstrating acceptably low scattered sunlight from petal edges.
From page 387...
... Both of these increase confidence in the coronagraphic and starshade starlight suppression technologies. However, the TRL of some of the subsystems is still as low as 3.
From page 388...
... . "Sufficiently mature" means that the interplay between mission architecture and starlight suppression techniques can be examined in greater depth effectively.
From page 389...
... In doing so, the panel considered program balance, which focuses on the need to ensure that opportunities are available for the whole astrophysics community to conduct science investigations, both on the ground and in space, and across all disciplines. With respect to the EOS-1 charge for electromagnetic observations from space, the current astrophysics program of record includes a plan for four Explorer missions and four missions of opportunity per decade and extremely large flagship missions that have been taking more than 20 years to complete.
From page 390...
... Despite the important role they play in providing risk reduction and ensuring availability of key technologies, small missions currently face a different standard of risk than flagships. The current competed line of Explorer missions, along with Discovery and New Frontiers missions in the Planetary Science Division, are strictly cost-capped and limited to employing only technologies that are at or above Technology Readiness Level (TRL)
From page 391...
... Offering similar incentivized technology demonstration opportunities for the Explorer and Probe lines in Astrophysics may offer some chance to mature technology and expand wavelength coverage and diversity of available techniques. The emerging areas of SmallSats and CubeSats are gaining the attention of astronomers.


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