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Appendix M: Report of the Panel on Radio, Millimeter, and Submillimeter Observations from the Ground
Pages 464-487

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From page 464...
... . This record encompasses discoveries made by two types of RMS facilities: experiments, which are designed, built, and used by dedicated teams to address focused sets of science questions, and observatories, which offer diverse and flexible sets of observational capabilities to broad communities of astronomers, and can therefore address wide ranges of science questions.
From page 465...
... , these are: o Broadband, high-cadence, spectropolarimetric imaging of the Sun, to trace flares, shocks, and coronal mass ejections, and understand the drivers of space weather; o High-resolution imaging of jets driven by supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies, to determine how such jets are launched and powered; o Surveying the static and time-variable radio sky with an innovative new "radio camera," to address a wealth of science questions using statistical samples of star forming galaxies and fast radio bursts; and o Mapping the evolution of neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) gas in the very early Universe, at epochs before galaxies and black holes were sufficiently numerous to ionize it.
From page 466...
... , and the Arecibo Observatory have made it part of their core mission to expand their user communities through support, outreach, and training activities. Experiments and PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION M-3
From page 468...
... In reviewing these white papers and engaging with the PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION M-5
From page 470...
... TABLE M.1 High-Priority Science Questions Versus RMS Facilities PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION M-7
From page 472...
... where stellar winds are PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION M-9
From page 475...
... , but concurs with the TRACE adjustments for (1) a project management and systems engineering "overhead" higher than that for the EVLA upgrade, as appropriate for the ngVLA's larger geographical PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION M-12
From page 476...
... The ngVLA project team understands the scale of this challenge and has plans to address it, for example, via a user-friendly archive coupled with server-side visualization and analysis platforms, although this type of functionality remains an active area of development. M.3.5 Additional Programmatic Guidance The RMS panel views the ngVLA as an exciting concept for a flexible, powerful, PI-driven observatory that would address a wide range of Astro2020 high-priority science questions.
From page 477...
... introduce vortical patterns (known as "B PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION M-14
From page 478...
... by mapping the large-scale mass distribution through reconstruction of the CMB lensing potential -- enabling fruitful comparisons with tracers of structure at PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION M-15
From page 479...
... All ~500,000 detectors required would be of the transition edge sensor type, with cryogenic multiplexing readouts. M.4.4 Cost, Schedule, and Risks The CMB-S4 project team has prepared a detailed project design, plan, schedule, and cost model, which are compatible with NSF and DOE protocols for management of large projects and have already PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION M-16
From page 481...
... Based on the ambition and creativity of the Astro2020 white papers, the RMS panel is confident that funding for mid-scale projects will be as valuable and as impactful in the next decade as it has been in the past. In particular, based on the Astro2020 high-priority science questions, the RMS panel has identified four areas in which outstanding scientific opportunities exist for new mid-scale RMS facilities.
From page 483...
... would enable studies of jet physics on scales farther from the Schwarzschild radius, and through the EHT's ability to resolve binary black holes at high angular resolution would also help address the question of how supermassive black holes grow (COEP-4, GAL-3)
From page 484...
... RMS facilities. From the Astro2020 science panel reports, it is clear that pulsar timing capabilities are critical for tackling a number of high-priority science questions: the mass and spin distributions for neutron stars and black holes (COEP-1)
From page 485...
... While pulsar timing represents their clearest science driver in the context of Astro2020, both Arecibo and the GBT are also poised to deliver abundantly in addressing other high-priority science questions. Used as auxiliary VLBI stations, both facilities greatly improve the sensitivity of highresolution observations of jets launched by neutron star mergers, tidal disruptions, and other explosive events (COEP-2, COEP-3)


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