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3 Input of Oil to the Sea
Pages 55-106

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From page 55...
... Oil spills • extraction of hydrocarbons caused by extreme weather events have become a concern, • aging infrastructure and decommissioning which is covered in this chapter as well. • marine transportation by ships and pipelines As described in Chapter 1, to the extent possible with • coastal storage facilities available data, the analysis is of North American waters, • sunken wrecks which includes the economic exclusive zones (or out to the 55
From page 56...
... This chapter begins with an overview of the committee's Increase in urban populations in coastal areas, consumer findings regarding magnitude and trends of oil volumes enbehavior, improved fuel efficiency of vehicles, and introduc- tering the sea.1 The following sections then provide detail on tion of electric cars are all changes impacting land-based each type of input, describing the changes since the Oil in consumption and, although more difficult to quantify, inputs the Sea III report (many of which are regulatory in nature) , of oil into the sea.
From page 57...
... Recovery po- velopment, production, and transportation have the potential to cause tential is greatest off the northern coast of Alaska in the Chukchi and the largest oil spills, discharges resulting from other causes cannot be Beaufort Seas, where an estimated 14–47 billion barrels of recoverable dismissed. Commercial fishing, shipping, and tourism vessels carry oil may be located (some of which is on land, see Figure 3.2)
From page 58...
... In the absence of non-compliance data, full compliance of oily discharges from tank vessels and non-tank vessels is assumed and illegal discharges are 3.1 OVERVIEW OF OIL INPUTS regarded as spills. Regulations prohibit discharges of oily Although data are lacking for accurately estimating many water from cargo areas in tank vessels in North American inputs of oil into North American waters, enough data do waters, and therefore there is no discharge to report.
From page 59...
... recycling are not factored in; therefore, estimates are likely Total estimates of fossil fuel hydrocarbon inputs from oil higher than actuals. If including estimates of land-based run- and gas seeps in North American waters are discussed in the off, overall, the inputs of oil into the marine environment are following subsections.
From page 60...
... 60 OIL IN THE SEA IV 220,000 MT Q 4 3 A Q 2 1 A COAST OFF 4 230,000 MT P 3 4 P 2 3 1 2 COAST OFF 1 B O COAST OFF CANADA 4 3 2 O 1 M N COAST OFF 4 4 3 3 L 2 M 2 1 4 1 3 COAST OFF COAST OFF 2 59,000 MT 1 L G 5 N UNITED COAST OFF STATES 4 K K 3 2 4 1 3 COAST OFF 2 1 J North America 4 COAST OFF J 3 Input of Oil into the 2 MEXICO 1 Marine Environment COAST OFF FIGURE 3.3  Map of North America showing estimates of oil in the sea through natural sources, land-based sources, operational discharges, and accidental spills.
From page 61...
... Input of Oil to the Sea 61 530,000 MT Natural oil seeps Land-based sources Operational discharges A Accidental spills C Amounts shown are in 4 10,000 MT/year A 3 4 230,000 MT 2 3 1 2 COAST OFF 1 COAST OFF B B C 4 NADA 3 2 1 COAST OFF D 4 3 D 2 F 1 OFF 64,000 MT 59,000 MT 4 COAST OFF 57,000 MT E UNITED G 3 STATES 4 2 E 4 1 3 3 I 2 2 COAST OFF 1 4 1 3 F COAST OFF I COAST OFF DWH G 2 1 H COAST OFF J 4 H 3 MEXICO 2 1 COAST OFF
From page 62...
... 100,000 160,000 Oil Seeps 100,000 160,000 Gas Seeps 2–9 Tgb Not reported Extraction of Petroleum 2,980 excluding DWH 9,500 including DWH 66,500 Platforms 1,100 160 MC-20 1,600c DWH 57,000 Atmospheric Deposition Not reported 120 Produced Waters 6,800 2,700 Transportation of Petroleum 818 9,209 Pipeline Spills 380 1,900 Tank Vessel Spills 200 5,300 Commercial Vessel Spills 8 99 Coastal Terminal Spills 220 1,900 Coastal Refinery Spills 10 Included with terminal spills Atmospheric Deposition Not reported 10 Consumption of Petroleum 1,200,399 83,520 Land-based Runoff 1,200,000 54,000 Recreational Marine Vessels Not reported 5,600 Spills (non-tank vessels)
From page 63...
... methane source range and the Gulf of Mexico seepage rate F: Eastern GoM 8,000 defined a "high" source range. The regionally average seaG: Western GoM 60,000 floor methane seepage fluxes determined by this approach H: Mexican GoM 30,000 K: California Pacific 10,000 were 0.0042–0.087 moles of methane per meter squared P: South Alaska 1,000 per year, consistent with previous estimates (Kessler and Total 109,000 Weber, 2021, and references therein)
From page 64...
... . While this does grease and petroleum hydrocarbon data available in the not consider differences from changes in fuel efficiency, ­Water Quality Portal3 (WQP)
From page 65...
... The primary inputs grease measurements is only an estimate. The increases of fossil fuel hydrocarbons are not in the form of liquid oil, described previously with respect to the inputs of petro- but are combustion-derived products from combustion enleum hydrocarbons are within this range of uncertainty gines (vehicles)
From page 66...
... a significant input of petroleum, especially PAHs, to the Net air-water fluxes of PAHs are calculated from conmarine environment (NRC, 2003)
From page 67...
... used to block the water from entering the well including the Operational discharges from exploration and production use of dual completion wells to separate production of oil operations in Canada are regulated by the Offshore Waste and water, the injection of gel-like materials to stop water Treatment Guidelines (National Energy Board, 2010)
From page 68...
... . Veil conducted a sys tematic analysis of produced water generated in the United Produced Water as a Function of Total Oil Production States, both onshore and offshore, and published comprehenThe ratio of produced water to produced oil equivalents sive reports in 2009, 2015, and 2020.
From page 69...
... (maximum estimate) C: E Canada 104,005,970 1,615,773 61,037,083 194 146 281 Offshore F: E GOM 25,884 48,541,716 1,280,832 4 3 6 Nearshorec F: E GOM Offshore 34,991,045 78,403,905 11,811,098 38 28 54 G: W GOM 3,847,596 11,299,809 9,618,990e 31 23 44 Nearshored G: W GOM Offshore 626,892,869 831,100,299 398,644,277 1,267 951 1,838 H: Mexican GOMf 620,500,000 73,000,000 No datag 4,932 3,699 7,151 Offshore K: CA Pacific 1,496,500 393,470,000 16,242,500 52 39 75 Nearshoreh K: CA Pacific 4,383,418 2,702,654 42,233,459 134 101 195 Offshorei P: South Alaskaj 3,253,102 23,610,069 35,371,703 112 84 163 Nearshore P: South Alaska 0 5,915,233 42,926 0 0 0 Offshore Q: North Alaska 11,580,775 256,693,367 20,391,303 65 49 94 Nearshore Totalk 1,410,977,159 1,726,352,825 587,055,181 1,866 1,400 2,706 Totall 1,410,977,159 1,726,352,825 2,147,924,171 6,829 5,122 9,902 a  Based on data available for 2020.
From page 70...
... Table 3.3 summarizes the are allowed only if the tanker is under way between ports annual estimated input of oil into the marine environment in outside of 50 nautical miles from the nearest land, and the different study regions. instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not exceed
From page 71...
... Ports and Tank Vessels This section covers operational discharges terminals in which ships have oily residues to discharge are associated with tank vessel cargo operations. Operational required to have reception facilities with adequate capacity discharges from machinery operations on tankers and other to receive and process the oily waste generated by the vessels commercial vessels are basically the same, and they are discalling in the facility.
From page 72...
... The 2003 report deposition of VOC from tankers in North American waters concluded that the numbers of recreational two-stroke outat 5 tonnes per year based on conservative assumptions on boards (the predominant propulsion system on small gasoline-­ the VOC emissions and the report concluded that the input powered boats operating within the marine environment) had is significant only in terms of its impact on local air quality.
From page 73...
... 3.4.2.3 Aircraft Fuel Jettison 3.5 ACCIDENTAL SPILLS Aircraft deliberately dump, or "jettison," fuel to reduce Accidental spills are oil spillages occurring during explothe aircraft's weight in emergency situations to allow the ration and production of oil and gas, spills due to aging infraaircraft to land safely without sustaining structural damage. structure, and spills from transportation, including pipelines, Such emergency situations include a return to the airport tank vessel spills, non-tank vessel spills, transportation by shortly after takeoff, compromised aircraft performance, and rail, and spills associated with coastal refineries and storage an emergency landing at an unintended destination.
From page 74...
... . Although there had been other oil spills ment of the Oil in the Sea III study (1990–1999)
From page 75...
... 0.3* NA Total Coastal 71 71  90 Total Offshore 1,038.60 57,291.20 139 Grand Total 1,109.60 57,362.20 229 a  Current estimates are based on data analyses conducted by Environmental Research Consulting and Greene Economics on the U.S.
From page 76...
... . The oil spill led to the release of 4 million bbl of oil into the 2.
From page 77...
... events in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico outer continental spill of the magnitude of the DWH oil spill.
From page 78...
... During a maritime oil spill response, the U.S. incident conditions to any location in the world.
From page 79...
... The Coast Guard also reviewed its ated whether Transport Canada, the Canadian Coast Guard, Response Management System to ensure that it can Fisheries and Oceans Canada, and Environment Canada have support a multi-party response to a major oil spill in implemented measures to prepare for and respond to pollution Canadian waters. from ships in Canada's marine environment (The Office of • Transport Canada, in their Report to Parliament the Auditor General of Canada, 201017)
From page 80...
... minimize the environmental impacts of oil spills 19  See https://primis.phmsa.dot.gov/comm/reports/enforce/Enforcement. and enhance habitat recovery.
From page 81...
... 1334 and 30 C.F.R. 250, Sub related to global warming, represents a considerable part Q, ­Decommissioning Activities.23 risk of future oil inputs into the marine environment Oil and gas wells -- whether active (in service)
From page 82...
... This was a For 14 years, the broken pipelines leaked oil and the owner of the unique situation requiring a first-of-its-kind source control solution. The platform made attempts to deal with the releases.
From page 83...
... used to plug a well, are susceptible to corrosion, decay, associated infrastructure are not always the underlying tectonic shifting, underwater landslides, and accidents such reasons for an oil release into the environment, age can as allisions by passing vessels, but more often fail due to be, as has been established, a contributing factor and well design and the materials used in their construction and cause for concern. Age ranges of pipelines and wells for the containment efforts.
From page 84...
... . Crude oil and refined petroleum products are transported Pipelines associated with oil and gas activities have exhib- from one place to another in a number of ways: by tank vessel ited accidental spills emanating from failures due to allisions (tanker or tank barge)
From page 85...
... are transported from inland production sites H: Mexican GOM Coastal 0 Trace in the United States and Canada through pipelines to inland H: Mexican GOM Offshore 0 ND I: Puerto Rico Coastal 0 Trace and coastal terminals for distribution by tank vessel, rail, or J: Mexico Pacific Coastal 0 ND tanker truck. Some pipelines run directly to refineries.
From page 86...
... 20 P: South Alaska Offshore 0 Trace Q: North Alaska Coastal 0 Trace Q: North Alaska Offshore 0 Trace Total Coastal 107.4 1,924.00 Total Offshore 91.1 2,029.00 Grand Total 198.5 3,953.00 a  Current estimates are based on data analyses conducted by Environmental Research Consulting and Greene Economics on the U.S. Coast Guard Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement (MISLE)
From page 87...
... ; time frames is shown in Table 3.12. There has been a 97% • Certificates of Financial Responsibility, improved reduction in the amount of oil spilled from tank vessels in inspections and audits, and other measures to assure U.S.
From page 88...
... Oil company vetting of tankers based on the initiated a number of programs that have contributed to safer SIRE protocol has become a prerequisite for tanker oil transportation. eligibility in worldwide chartering.
From page 89...
... . Statistical and modeling studies try -- as well as the effects of the large costs of oil spills, conducted on the effectiveness of double hulls in reducing especially in the United States with the enactment of the oil spillage have shown that for a double-hull tanker, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90)
From page 90...
... One of the approaches to mitigating spills from transfer Another notable trend for non-tank vessels is a shift operations is to pre-boom the vessel: that is to place an oil from offshore oil spillage to a greater proportion of spillspill containment boom around the vessel so that any spilled age occurring in coastal and nearshore waters. Nearly oil is contained within the boomed area.
From page 91...
... Trace Q: North Alaska Offshore 0 35.1 50 Total Coastal 122.1 119.3 399 Total Offshore 42.1 62.2 488 Grand Total 164.2 181.6 887 a  Current estimates are based on data analyses conducted by Environmental Research Consulting and Greene Economics on the U.S. Coast Guard Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement (MISLE)
From page 92...
... bunker tanks. Similar to double hulls on cargo tanks as pres- 3.5.4.4 Transportation by Rail ent on tank vessels, double hulls on bunker tanks reduce the Although rail tank cars have been used to transport fuel likelihood of an oil release in the event of an impact acci and petrochemicals for many years in most parts of the world dent -- a collision, grounding, or allision (such as occurred with extensive freight railroad systems, the use of trains to with the Cosco Busan)
From page 93...
... 31 flood waters may swamp the containment area, in which case P: South Alaska Coastal 16.5 30 Q: North Alaska Coastal 0 10 secondary containment is generally ineffective and oil may Total Coastal 216.4 1,697.00 enter marine waters. Total Offshore 0 12 In the United States, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 Grand Total 216.4 1,709.00 caused significant damage to coastal terminals in Louisiana a  Current estimates are based on data analyses conducted by Environmental and Texas and the release of nearly 132,000 bbl (19,000 MT)
From page 94...
... The study cited the example of the USS Total Offshore 0 ND Mississinewa, an oil tanker sunk in 1944 in Ulithi Lagoon, Grand Total 10.7 ND Caroline Islands, as leaking heavy fuel oil after a storm in a  Current estimates are based on data analyses conducted by Environmental 2001 (Gilbert, 2001; Gilbert et al., 2003)
From page 95...
... 16.5 0 16.7 Trace 20 30 ND 50 P: South Alaska Offshore 0 0 0 0 0 NA Trace 0 ND 0 Q: North Alaska Coastal 0 0 0 0 0 NA Trace 10 ND 10 Q: North Alaska Offshore 0 0 0 0 0 NA Trace 0 ND 0 Total Coastal 378.3 107.4 216.4 10.7 712.8 1,115.00 1,924.00 1,697.00 ND 4,736.00 Total Offshore 2.1* 91.1 0 0 93.2 60 2,017.00 12 ND 2,089.00 Grand Total 380.4 198.5 216.4 10.7 806 1,175.00 3,941.00 1,709.00 ND 6,825.00 a  Current estimates are based on data analyses conducted by Environmental Research Consulting and Greene Economics on the U.S.
From page 96...
... In World War II Japan's and Germany's aggression was fueled by the mental terrorism." pursuit of areas with oil production, so as to decrease their reliance on Although no specific conflict-related oil spills were reported in North external entities and to expand their idealisms. The fuel oil produced on American waters within the 20-year period covered by this report, the pos the east coast of the United States was able to supply crucial petroleum sibility cannot be ruled out in the future.
From page 97...
... In the case of a potentially polluting wreck databases (as used in the 2005 study) and the RULET study where there is no actual spill at the time, the USCG needs results for North America and the Caribbean were evaluated to establish that there is a "substantial and imminent to estimate the potential volumes and types of oil present threat" of an oil spill in order to be able to procure funds by geographic zone.
From page 98...
... All Oils (MT) a Zone Subzone Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min B: N Canada Offshore 0 0 535 54 0 0 535 54 C: E Canada Coastal 0 0 1,453 145 0 0 1,453 145 C: E Canada Offshore 19,491 1,949 138,105 13,811 64,936 6,494 222,533 22,253 D: N Atlantic Coastal 0 0 0 0 1,714 171 1,714 171 D: N Atlantic Offshore 11,134 1,113 46,140 4,614 59,165 5,916 116,438 11,644 E: Mid-Atlantic Coastal 0 0 1,981 198 0 0 1,981 198 E: Mid-Atlantic Offshore 82,783 8,278 81,590 8,159 39,498 3,950 203,871 20,387 F: E GOM Offshore 12,857 1,286 11,706 1,171 714 71 25,278 2,528 G: W GOM Coastal 0 0 27,450 2,745 0 0 27,450 2,745 G: W GOM Offshore 33,999 3,400 57,566 5,757 9,947 995 101,512 10,151 H: Mexican GOM Offshore 0 0 51,991 5,199 0 0 51,991 5,199 I: Puerto Rico Coastal 0 0 7,032 703 0 0 7,032 703 I: Puerto Rico Offshore 0 0 0 0 30,994 3,099 30,994 3,099 J: Mexico Pacific Coastal 0 0 3,401 340 0 0 3,401 340 K: CA Pacific Coastal 0 0 0 0 1,120 112 1,120 112 L: Mid-Pacific Coastal 0 0 0 0 1,786 179 1,786 179 L: Mid-Pacific Offshore 0 0 25,926 2,593 0 0 25,926 2,593 M: NW Pacific Coastal 0 0 245 24 929 93 1,173 117 M: NW Pacific Offshore 0 0 14,930 1,493 561 56 15,491 1,549 N: Hawaii Coastal 0 0 0 0 3,286 329 3,286 329 N: Hawaii Offshore 0 0 0 0 1,714 171 1,714 171 O: Pacific Canada Offshore 0 0 3,852 385 1,036 104 4,888 489 P: South Alaska Coastal 0 0 1,000 100 0 0 1,000 100 P: South Alaska Offshore 0 0 1,722 172 0 0 1,722 172 Total Coastal 0 0 42,562 4,256 8,835 883 51,397 5,140 Total Offshore 160,263 16,026 434,063 43,406 208,566 20,857 802,892 80,289 Grand Total 160,263 16,026 476,625 47,662 217,401 21,740 854,289 85,429 Caribbean Coastal 16,438 1,644 43,489 4,349 2,708 271 62,634 6,263 Caribbean Offshore 30,253 3,025 259,055 25,905 48,157 4,816 337,464 33,746 FIGURE 3.16  Map of largest potentially polluting shipwrecks in North American waters.
From page 99...
... report in which the forecasts 3.5.6 Projections of Future Oil Spillage for 2020–2050 by fuel type are the midpoint between The estimates of oil spillage into marine and estuarine wa- the Reference scenario and the Net Zero 2050 scenario ters of North America from oil extraction, transportation, and with the exception of the shipping data, which are consumption activities as estimated for Oil in the Sea IV (based based on previous estimates by an American Bureau on spill data for the years 2010–2019 to represent current spill- of Shipping (2020) study.
From page 100...
... . Oil spillage from extraction does not Because the Oil in the Sea IV study is limited to input include outlier well blowouts such as the DWH incident.
From page 101...
... The chances of a large tanker spill and projected spillage amounts are shown in Table 3.21 and may be escalating, despite the full implementation of Figure 3.20. Note that these do not include outlier blowouts double hulls and other prevention measures, because of the such as the DWH incident.
From page 102...
... For oil consumption-related spillage, the estimated The total spillage from all sources is summarized in historical and projected spillage amounts are shown in Table 3.24 and Figure 3.23. Again, outlier blowouts are Table 3.23 and Figure 3.22.
From page 103...
... FIGURE 3.22  North America oil consumption spill projections.
From page 104...
... 7,651 149 141 7,941 2010s (OITS IV) 1,224 69 1,017 2,310 Reference Scenario 2020s 1,394 65 709 2,168 2030s 1,367 63 864 2,295 2040s 1,316 59 1,095 2,469 2050s 1,298 55 1,171 2,525 Partial Decarbonization Scenario 2020s 1,237 61 721 2,018 2030s 1,030 53 577 1,660 2040s 714 37 405 1,156 2050s 536 27 334 896 Net Zero 2050 Scenario 2020s 1,195 65 543 1,802 2030s 882 51 378 1,311 2040s 501 29 210 740 2050s 289 16 144 449 FIGURE 3.23  North America oil spill projections for all sources.
From page 105...
... The Oil in the Sea III report recommended: cluding oil spills, and nonpoint sources, federal agencies, "federal agencies, especially the U.S. Coast Guard, should especially USGS and EPA should work with state and local work with the transportation industry to undertake a systemauthorities to undertake regular monitoring of TPH and PAH atic assessment of the extent of noncompliance." The extent inputs from air and water (especially rivers and harbors)
From page 106...
... , should work with industry to more rigorously deter- into the marine environment. mine the amount of fuel dumping by aircraft and to formulate appropriate actions to understand this potential threat to the Conclusion -- Double hulls on tankers and on fuel tanks of marine environment." It was found that this recommendation other types of vessels help reduce the likelihood of spillage has not been addressed and remains an important gap in the from low-impact groundings and collisions, but they will not understanding of oil inputs into the marine environment.


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