Skip to main content

Currently Skimming:

1 Introduction and Background
Pages 13-30

The Chapter Skim interface presents what we've algorithmically identified as the most significant single chunk of text within every page in the chapter.
Select key terms on the right to highlight them within pages of the chapter.


From page 13...
... Headquartered in Austin, Texas, AFC reached full operational capability in July 2019, with approximately 26,000 personnel, spread across the United States and elsewhere, it is focused primarily on major Army modernization priorities.1 AFC now oversees the Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC) , also known and used in this report as DEVCOM, and formerly as the Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM)
From page 14...
... The review should also include recommendations for policy and organizational options that would better optimize the Army research enterprise to support Army missions in the near, mid, and far terms."3 The National Academies Board on Army Research and Development convened the Committee on U.S. Army Futures Command Research Program Realignment for these purposes.
From page 15...
... As part of this reorganization, certain program elements for basic research, applied research, and advanced technology development were realigned from research, develop ment, and engineering centers to AFC headquarters. The Senate Armed Services Committee has directed the Secretary of the Army to enter into an agreement with the National Academy of Sciences to evalu ate these changes and their impact on the Army's ability to efficiently and effec tively develop and deploy needed capabilities and new technologies in the near, mid, and long terms.
From page 16...
... Discovery research -- Basic research and basic science. Time horizons -- For the purposes of the report the committee defines time horizons loosely as follows: -- Near-term: 1-5 years -- Mid-term: 5-10 years -- Long-term: 10+ years Budget activity codes:4 The definitions are adopted from official DoD definitions.
From page 17...
... The international security environment has shifted back to great-power competition, now with China and Russia, as well as to significant threats from North Korea and Iran. The United States is experiencing a range of challenges, such as cyber-attacks on civilian and government infrastructures; a resurgence of nuclear and conventional threats, including hypersonic delivery vehicles; and potential threats to space assets; along with advancements in technologies like artificial intelligence, machine learning, and quantum computing.
From page 18...
... Army top civilian and military leadership realigned S&T, other RDT&E, and procurement accounts in 2017 to bring critical funding to the six modernization priorities it selected. Subsequently, in 2018, AFC was formed and commenced controlling, or otherwise strongly influencing, Army investments in the "Big Six" modernization priorities, including decisions regarding S&T funding.8 The Big Six became eight modernization thrusts, as follows: Long Range Precision Fires, Next Generation Combat Vehicles, Future Vertical Lift, Army Network (with one subset)
From page 19...
... Next Generation Combat Vehicles: Combat vehicles that integrate other close combat capabilities in manned, unmanned, and optionally manned teaming that leverages semi-autonomous and autonomous platforms in conjunction with the most modern firepower, protection, mobility, and power generation capabilities. Future Vertical Lift: A set of manned, unmanned, and optionally manned platforms that can execute attack, lift, and reconnaissance missions on the modern battle field with greater range, altitude, lethality, and payload.
From page 20...
... Creation of Army Futures Command AFC was established to consolidate the Army modernization efforts under a single command and to solve a core problem outlined in a memorandum from the Army Secretary: "The Army's current requirements and capabilities development practices take too long." According to the Army's own assessment, the system took anywhere from "3 to 5 years" to approve requirements, and generally another decade to design, build, and test new weapon systems. The Army assessed that is was losing near-peer competitive advantage in many areas, "we are outranged, outgunned, and increasingly outdated." The Army noted that private industry and some potential adversaries are "fielding new capabilities much faster than we are.
From page 21...
... SOURCE: U.S. Army, Undated, "Army Command Structure," https://www.army.mil/ 21 organization/.
From page 22...
... DEVCOM's ARL is also the Army's fundamental research laboratory "focused on cutting-edge scientific discovery, technological innovation, and transition of knowledge products"15 and is responsible for performing "Army-unique foundational research and cultivating criti cally important knowledge and insight that can enable future Army force modernization capabilities."16 ARL serves as the Army's primary laboratory for S&T, operates, through its subordinate Army Research Office, the deployment of basic research funding to extramural performers and provides support to the other Army branches through reimbursable agreements. See Figures 1.3 and 1.4 for organizational charts of RDECOM and DEVCOM.
From page 23...
... SOURCE: B Pike, 2020, "CCDC AvMC Update for HAMA," Combat Capabilities Development Command Aviation and Missile Center (DEVCOM AvMC)
From page 24...
... ARMY FUTURES COMMAND RESEARCH PROGRAM REALIGNMENT FIGURE 1.3 U.S. Army RDECOM Organization.
From page 25...
... • AMC -- to execute the modernization of facilities -- the Army's power projection platforms -- to meet requirements for training, sustaining, projecting, and maintaining the future force. • FORSCOM -- to play "a key role as the service force provider" and enable the Army to test, experiment, draw on the insights of the operational force, and balance readiness requirements for current operations and contingencies."20 With respect to S&T, the modernization strategy directs the Army to "execute an investment strategy that delivers underpinning knowledge 20 M
From page 26...
... (UIC: W3U2AA) , together with its authorities, responsibilities, designated subordinate elements, personnel, and resources (including funding and equipment)
From page 27...
... Both near-term modernization and long-term capability development and discovery are critical and need to be balanced to ensure continued U.S. military leadership in the coming decades.
From page 28...
... An active, flexible, well-resourced S&T effort also provides greater "­peripheral vision" -- that is, a view of what else is happening in various scientific fields that might be beneficial to military capabilities as well as insights into what adversaries might be doing. Every technological capability that the United States has developed and fielded since the beginning of the Cold War -- capabilities that have allowed it to maintain a large technology and capability gap over its adversaries -- has been the result of innovative S&T efforts.22 If the United Sates does not adequately resource a free-ranging exploration of what might be possible -- S&T properly conceived and conducted -- it invites a future in which its adversaries possess the revolutionary, disruptive technology lead.23 With this in mind, the committee approached the study from the perspective that a wellresourced S&T community and infrastructure is not only a critical military asset on par with the needs of modernization, but is a vital national resource to defend the nation, its allies, and its interests.
From page 29...
... Most recently, a small peak occurred just as AFC was being formed, showing an increased investment in the Army's modernization priorities. It is noteworthy to mention that during these rises and falls, the S&T portion of RDT&E mostly remains flat or decreased in constant dollars.
From page 30...
... McGarry, 2020, The Army's Modernization Strategy: Congressional Oversight Considerations, Congressional Research Service, https:// crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R46216; Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) , 2019, "Table 6-19: Army Budget Authority by Public Law Title, FY2020 constant dollars for selected ­titles" in National Defense Budget Estimates for FY2020, U.S.


This material may be derived from roughly machine-read images, and so is provided only to facilitate research.
More information on Chapter Skim is available.