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2 Background and Context
Pages 7-30

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From page 7...
... Louis chaired the first session, and Jennifer Madans, formerly of the National Center for Health Statistics, chaired the second session. OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES WITH RESPONSE AND CONSENT IN LONGITUDINAL SURVEYS ON AGING Midlife in the United States (MIDUS)
From page 8...
... Ryff provided response rates for the Core baseline sample and for two subsequent follow-ups, arrayed by phone interviews, questionnaires, and the cognitive project (Table 2-1)
From page 9...
... , except for being somewhat more educated. The second and fourth sections of the table show the response rates for MIDUS recruitment of an oversample of 1,200 African Americans from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, half of whom were recruited at the second wave of the Core sample and the other half as part of the Refresher recruitment.
From page 10...
... Linda Waite, the George Herbert Mead Distinguished Service Professor of Sociology at the University of Chicago and senior fellow at NORC at the University of Chicago, is principal investigator of NSHAP.3 NSHAP is a longitudinal, population-based study of health, and especially social factors and social life. The study was designed to understand the links between different components of health and well-being among older communitydwelling Americans.
From page 11...
... The most cooperative respondents, who completed all previous rounds quickly and did not need an increased incentive, are assigned to remote data collection. The second group, which was assigned to be interviewed in person, are those whom the investigators saw as needing more handholding and being more reluctant: They may have participated in only one previous round, needed a higher incentive, or were nonrespondents in the recruitment phase for the second, younger cohort.
From page 12...
... National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) Robert Hummer, the Howard W
From page 13...
... SOURCES: Adapted from Robert Hummer workshop presentation, September 27, 2021.
From page 14...
... Importantly, about 90 percent of respondents surveyed in person consented to a home health exam, whereas TABLE 2-3  Add Health Wave 5 Response and Consent Rates Overall sample size of 12,300 (effective response rate of 72%) Samples 1, 2A, 3 (n = 11,198)
From page 15...
... 10. Many respondents reported high regard for participation in Add Health, and they said they want to contribute to science and see it as a very important research effort.
From page 16...
... Each of the two samples will be nationally representative and, importantly for the web based survey sample, an in-person nonresponse follow-up will go after critically needed nonrespondents. Hummer noted the ambitious response rate goals for Wave VI: they are projecting a 67 percent raw response rate, a conditional consent rate for exams of 74 percent, and a conditional rate of 77 percent for completing the exams from those who consented.
From page 17...
... The decline in participation has been FIGURE 2-1  Core interview response rates for the Health and Retirement Study, 1994–2020. SOURCE: David Weir workshop presentation, September 27, 2021.
From page 18...
... more prevalent in the White sample than in the minority sample. Blacks have higher response rates than Whites, and Hispanics have about the same r­ esponse rates as Whites.
From page 19...
... Weir also described how respondents' consent is sought to link to Medicare records, and those who decline are asked again in subsequent waves. Linkage consent rates have been declining but multiple requests help considerably in raising rates.
From page 20...
... In the longitudinal case, previous wave survey data can be potentially useful for identifying and correcting for nonresponse bias. In the case of linkage nonconsent, he commented, it is useful to have any of the above auxiliary data sources, as well as current wave survey data.
From page 21...
... Looking at the average bias across several characteristics taken from administrative records, they found that panel nonresponse bias tends to be the more dominant source of bias. The average relative nonconsent bias was quite low, which was not surprising since the consent rate in this study was around 90 percent.
From page 22...
... Sakshaug next described how to use administrative data in a piggyback longitudinal study to adjust for nonresponse bias. Piggyback longitudinal surveys recruit their participants from a separate, independent crosssectional survey.
From page 23...
... He described studies that have experimented with the placement of the linkage consent question and noted that most of these studies find that asking for linkage consent at the beginning or at least in the middle of the survey has a higher consent rate than asking at the end. Linkage consent biases exist, he said, but are small relative to nonresponse biases, and using rich survey and linked-administrative data are useful for measuring and adjusting for nonresponse bias.
From page 24...
... They also have conducted a nonresponse bias analysis every 3 years to i­dentify any additional impacts and to determine potential mitigation strategies. For the most recent round, Reed-Gillette said, the overall response rate was 80.5 percent; the incoming 2020 panel sample had a response rate of 75.3 percent, and the continuing panel had a response rate of 85.1 percent.
From page 25...
... Reed-Gillette provided a link to the MCBS website for more information about the survey.6 Informing Follow-up Strategies to Reduce Nonresponse Bias Andy Peytchev is a senior survey methodologist and fellow at RTI. He began by discussing the similarities between longitudinal surveys and cross-sectional surveys.
From page 26...
... Peytchev described two case studies to illustrate how longitudinal studies benefit from using the initial data collected to inform later data collections to reduce the risk of nonresponse bias. The first case study was a field test for the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B)
From page 27...
... Field Test Group Response Rate Average Absolute Relative Bias Group 1: Early Respondents, 75% 4% relaxed protocol Group 2: Late Respondents, 70% 5% default protocol Group 3: Nonrespondents, 25% 18% default protocol Group 4: Nonrespondents, 37% 14% aggressive protocol SOURCE: Adapted from Andy Peytchev workshop presentation, September 27, 2021.
From page 28...
... Peytchev showed that the targeted groups who were different and predicted to respond at a lower rate did have lower response rates. They were able to get those groups' participation to mimic the rest of the groups with an increased incentive, although they were not as effective in reducing nonresponse bias.
From page 29...
... BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 29 estimates themselves. Reed-Gillette said with the MCBS and the availability of the administrative data, they design the survey and the linkage with the study in mind to improve estimates of the utilization and costs of the health care services.


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