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1 Introduction
Pages 5-13

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From page 5...
... For example, automobiles have been made safer with the introduction of antilock brakes and pedestrian detection, better weather forecasts help save lives and enhance crop yields, and medical discovery has been accelerated by ever-greater raw computational power along with advances in data analytics and modeling. At the same time, as regularly reported in both the general and scientific press, some uses of computing technology have raised concerns about individual and societal harms.
From page 6...
... For example, machine learning research started more than 5 decades ago, saw its first significant commercial applications in the early 1990s, and dramatically accelerated in impact a decade ago enabled by a combination of new algorithms, new sources of training data from an increasingly interconnected and digitized society, and advances in computing hardware.4 Other times, the rich connections in the technology innovation ecosystem and the availability of funding from venture capital or well-resourced firms make it possible for research ideas to be deployed quickly and on a large scale.5 One recent example is the use of machine learning to predict advertising clickthrough rates. The idea made its way from a published paper to deployment by Facebook in six months.6 Few if any fields rival computing for the speed with which research advances can be deployed to be used by millions of people.
From page 7...
... In focusing on computing research, this study considers how ethical and societal impact challenges can be addressed at this consequential foundational stage, and the practical steps that computing researchers, the research community as a whole, research sponsors, and researchperforming institutions can take toward fostering the development of computing technologies that more often serve social good and less often cause harm. Scientists and engineers have another important role as well: informing and educating future computing professionals about ethical and societal impact PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 7
From page 8...
... Still, computing researchers cannot, by themselves, ensure that computing technologies are designed and used in ways that are ethical and responsible. Technologies can have many different uses, and it is the application and context of use that most directly create the ethical and societal impact challenges.
From page 9...
... In many cases, this work will involve collaboration with ethicists and social and behavioral scientists. 1.6 A BRIEF HISTORY OF CONCERNS Attention to the ethical and societal impact challenges posed by computing technologies dates back to the earliest days of computers.
From page 10...
... Also observed decades ago were ways computing technology differed from prior technology revolutions. In a 1985 essay, James Moor cited the "logical malleability" of computers -- they "can be shaped and molded to do any activity that can be characterized in terms of inputs, outputs, and connectivity logical operations" -- and anticipated that "in the coming decades many human activities and social institutions will be transformed by computer technology and that this transforming effect of computerization will raise a wide range of issues for computer ethics."10 The 1980s also saw the founding of Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR)
From page 11...
... 1.7 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONSIBLE COMPUTING IN LIGHT OF THE UBIQUITY OF COMPUTING TECHNOLOGIES For computing research to be responsible, it needs to be ethical and adhere to societal values and norms.13 As will be discussed further in Chapter 2, computing researchers are not free to choose norms -- that is a societal prerogative -- but need to be knowledgeable of them and take them into account in their research. Computing research must thus consider and take into account its potential societal impacts, especially now that computing technology is present throughout the daily life of individuals, communities (of work and of play)
From page 12...
... The analysis and recommendations in this report are primarily aimed at the computing research ecosystem comprising computer researchers, the computing research community, the scientific and professional societies in which they participate, other scholarly publishers, the public and private sector agencies and organizations that sponsor computing research, and the public and private sector institutions PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 12
From page 13...
... In keeping with its statement of task, this report does not provide recommendations for government regulation of computing technologies including corporate computing research, but it does discuss ways that the computing research community can help inform government action in this space. The report describes various ways that addressing diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI)


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