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4 Conclusions and Recommendations
Pages 72-91

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From page 72...
... This report adopts the term "researchers" as inclusive of researchers in academia, private-sector and PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 72
From page 73...
... Recommendation 4 complements Recommendation 3 by identifying ways computing research institutions along with research sponsors and scientific and professional societies can provide computing researchers with access to scholars and scholarship in ethics, social and behavioral sciences. Recommendations 5 and 6 focus on the two key actors in the computing ecosystem who vet computing research and can assess whether particular efforts adequately address ethical and societal impacts, namely research sponsors and scholarly publishers.
From page 74...
... First, as responsible computing research is taken up by other researchers and technology developers and deployers, it will serve as a model for them to be responsible as well. Second, the recommendations for PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 74
From page 75...
... If they do not engage the relevant stakeholders, computing researchers run the risk of building systems that may work for themselves (or their friends and colleagues) but may not perform equally well PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 75
From page 76...
... The computing research community should initiate projects that foster responsible computing research, including research that leads to societal benefits and ethical societal impact and research that helps avoid or mitigate negative outcomes and harms. Both research sponsors and research institutions should encourage and support the pursuit of such projects.
From page 77...
... Computing research sponsors should foster and provide support for new kinds of projects that would help facilitate responsible computing research, including the multidisciplinary projects called for in Recommendation 1. Potential new kinds of projects include the following:  Government-computing research collaboratives that bring computing researchers (including students and other early career researchers)
From page 78...
... Responsible computing research requires multidisciplinary research, and the participation of researchers at all career stages in all relevant disciplines. The needed multidisciplinary research starts from an engagement with responsible computing issues and then identifies the concepts and reasoning from a relevant field that can be used to approach resolving them (e.g., "engaged ethics" as described in Section 2.1.1)
From page 79...
...  An example is to integrate a deeper knowledge of the powers and limitations of computing into undergraduate and graduate curricula in the social and behavioral sciences and humanities, thus enabling students to understand better ways in which their field can contribute to public understanding.  Ensure that in particular those engaged in graduate training in one of the non-computing fields relevant to progressing responsible computing have the necessary technical expertise to subsequently collaborate and engage with technical computing disciplines.
From page 80...
... Recommendation 3.3. Conference organizers, journals, and research sponsors should provide computing researchers with guidelines and training opportunities on the appropriate ways to review ethical and societal issues in papers and proposals.
From page 81...
... Hence, it is up to research sponsors to step into this gap to ensure that the research community is learning in a rigorous, informed manner how to do things better. A specific opportunity for research sponsors is to support empirical tests of educational and workflow interventions to produce researchers and research teams who conduct more responsible computing research -- for example, research to systematically examine the effectiveness and other implications of different models for ethics review of research projects and scholarly publications. Research sponsors, institutions participating in research, and in some cases external civil society organizations, can all contribute by developing the capacity to assess, and potentially audit, the extent to which these ethical and societal concerns are being taken seriously in research over time.
From page 82...
... 4.5 INTEGRATE ETHICAL AND SOCIETAL CONSIDERATIONS INTO COMPUTING RESEARCH SPONSORSHIP Recommendation 5. Sponsors of computing research should require that ethical and societal considerations be interwoven into research proposals, evaluated in proposal review, and included in project reports.
From page 83...
... Implementers of this recommendation can draw on the experiences of recent experiments with oversight of responsible computing research at the proposal stage. Two recent examples are the Stanford Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence's Ethics and Society Review board11 and the Microsoft Research Ethics Review Program.12 There are other interesting examples of ethics oversight in the corporate sector that are in service of product development rather than research and are not addressed here.
From page 84...
... Thus, it will be important that any response to such reports be to provide non-judgmental guidance to researchers as they responsibly attempt to adjust their research plans. Specifically:  Research sponsors should require that interim project reports provide updates on societal or ethical issues encountered and describe the ways they were addressed.  Research sponsors should require that final project reports discuss lessons learned about ethical and societal impact.
From page 85...
... Conferences and journals should include in their evaluation criteria and metrics an assessment of how well a paper addresses ethical issues and societal impacts associated with the research, approaches taken by the researchers to mitigate these issues, and potential approaches that future researchers or developers using these results should take to mitigate potential negative impacts. Specifically:  Publication venues should establish a clear set of responsible computing research guidelines for authors and reviewers.
From page 86...
... Specifically:  Publication venues should consider whether to assign ethics review as a standard reviewer responsibility or to assign ethics review to a separate set of reviewers.  If ethics review is a standard reviewer responsibility, reviewers need to be educated about the responsible computing research guidelines adopted by the venue.
From page 88...
... Research sponsors, research institutions, and scientific and professional societies should encourage computing researchers to engage with the public and with the public interest and support them in doing so. Individuals and societies as a whole are often affected by new technologies and would benefit from opportunities to better understand what's going on "under the hood." Note that public engagement (Recommendation 8.1)
From page 89...
... Computing researchers should develop and promulgate knowledge that supports better decision making by acquirers of computing technologies, particularly governments. Research sponsors should consider supporting such work as well as research on effective ways of informing decision makers and the public.
From page 90...
... As new technologies are developed, some research sponsors may want to fund research on whether and where new regulations may be needed. Importantly, in addition to permitting "good regulation" it helps avoid "bad regulation," including potential stifling of innovation.


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