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2 Potential Long-Term Effects of COVID-19 on Health Equity
Pages 11-20

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From page 11...
... , and concludes with some of the long-term implications of COVID-19, through the "long COVID" condition experienced by both adults and children. PANDEMIC INEQUALITIES IN THE UNITED STATES Presented by David Blumenthal, Commonwealth Fund David Blumenthal, Commonwealth Fund, noted that equity has been front and center throughout the pandemic and shared evidence of specific instances of pandemic-related inequity and some potential solutions.
From page 12...
... To posit some causes of disparities, Blumenthal shared additional examples of rates of uninsurance by race and rural versus urban divides. Because the United States is the only country in the developed world that does not have universal health coverage, he said, not having health insurance can influence health disparities, and that is not felt equally across race or ethnicity groups.
From page 13...
... Census Bureau, 2021.
From page 14...
... There were concerns surrounding mental health since the early phases of the pandemic, Ali said, and patients with mental health conditions can be more susceptible to COVID-19 (Yao et al., 2020)
From page 15...
... Though conservative due to the paucity of entered Z codes, the researchers found that the odds ratios (ORs) were quite high for new onset of mental health conditions for those with Z codes entered.
From page 16...
... Post Severe COVID-19 Syndrome includes a severe case of COVID-19 where, following hospital discharge, 70 percent of patients report long-term symptoms, including fibrosis, tissue damage, and even organ damage; and (2) Post COVID-19 Fatigue Syndrome follows a mild or asymptomatic case, where 10 to 30 percent experience long-term symptoms such as fatigue, brain fog, postexertional malaise, and dysautonomia, which can affect functions like heartbeat and breathing.
From page 17...
... Vaccines may improve long COVID symptoms by eliciting robust antiviral antibodies to clear the viral reservoir. Vaccines may also trigger innate and adaptive immune responses to redirect the immune system away from sustaining autoreactive lymphocytes, thereby improving patient symptoms.
From page 18...
... The majority of children who do get COVID-19 typically have a mild case and fully recover, he said. But some children will have acute post­ infectious complications such as multisystem inflammatory syndrome or acute onset neurological diseases, and another subset of children will struggle to return to normal life.
From page 19...
... Kumanan Rasanathan, World Health Organization, also pointed out the lack of data specifically for Indigenous populations across many countries, but where available, data show important inequities. Another participant asked about the problematic political discourse around health care in the United States, and how politicians can transcend their differences to address the inequities in a bipartisan fashion.
From page 20...
... Another participant asked if long COVID can have a hand in bringing people together. Buonsenso was not convinced it could be that influential, as there is still disagreement and discussion about just how much the disease or the immune system plays a role in long COVID, or if it is more psycho­social because of other disruptions through the pandemic.


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