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Appendix E: Nuclear Cooperation Agreement Details
Pages 207-208

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From page 207...
... They average 400 days from an initial memorandum to entry into force up to a decade or more for agreements with new partners. The NCA Agreements, referred to in the United States as "123 Agreements," typically have a time limit, requiring renegotiation for extension and the cooperating parties have a safeguards agreement with the IAEA and are parties to the Additional Protocol for the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (CPPNM/ AP)
From page 208...
... . The gold standard and other 123 Agreement conditions have prompted some to suggest reforming the agreements to rely more on greater inspector access and better tools and practices for verification and monitoring and viewing favorably "black box" or "design, build, operate," particular for transfers of new and advanced civilian nuclear power reactors (Nephew 2020)

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