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3 The Evolving Electricity System and the Potential Role of Advanced Nuclear Reactors
Pages 38-52

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From page 38...
... THE POTENTIAL COMPETITIVENESS OF NUCLEAR A large suite of technologies has emerged that is altering both power supply and power demand. Most prominent among these are renewable energy systems and storage; the growth of residential and commercial energy management models like variable tariffs, smart metering, demand response, and microgrids; and the accelerating electrification of transportation, buildings, and industrial processes.
From page 39...
... Two other key technical developments are revolutions in building science and appliances that could dramatically increase energy efficiency. Attempts to decarbonize other sectors of the economy are rebounding on household energy use as well; electric vehicle charging at home is an example of a currently unfolding technological change that will increase household energy consumption and potentially stress power grids.
From page 40...
... , Energy Information Administration (EIA) , and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
From page 41...
... Cole, et al., 2022, Examining Supply-Side Options to Achieve 100% Clean Electricity by 2035, Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-6A40-81644, https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy22osti/81644.pdf; EIA (U.S. Energy Information Administration)
From page 42...
... The changing grid, especially the growth of inverter-based technologies5 on both the bulk power and distribution grids, raises questions about how to maintain and strengthen reliability and how to create regulations and market signals that incentivize attributes needed for reliability, at both investment and operating timescales. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC)
From page 43...
... Eurek, 2021, "Competitiveness Metrics for Electricity System Technologies," NREL/TP-6A20-72549, Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy21osti/72549.pdf. b The value of ancillary services is typically much smaller than energy and capacity value (Denholm et al.
From page 44...
... . The role of advanced nuclear generation in providing essential grid services beyond the provision of energy (e.g., providing voltage and frequency stability)
From page 45...
... . Resilience requires extensive preparation -- rarely at the level of generators, which are already highly resilient, but at other levels of the power system, and must involve investments in grid hardening, fuel storage, situational awareness, and the deployment of distributed energy resources (Campbell 2012)
From page 46...
... To address these issues, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has been conducting a series of technical conferences focused on reforms that modernize electricity market design, including critical questions regarding the nature and timing of such reforms.
From page 47...
... , federal power marketing entities, public power utilities, and state regulatory commissions play a vital role in the development and enhancement of the electric transmission system. The National Academies in its recent publication The Future of Electric Power in the United States emphasizes the need for "support across the government for the evaluation, planning and siting of regional transmission facilities in the U.S." (NASEM 2021)
From page 48...
... is critical to optimizing VPP operation. Finding 3-4: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Order 2222 opens the door for small and advanced reactors to have their output aggregated to serve evolving electricity markets.
From page 49...
... want to integrate more low-carbon electricity genera tion resources. The Inflation Reduction Act adds/modifies various clean energy tax provisions in the Internal Revenue Code, which will expand the participation of clean energy technologies, including existing and advanced new nuclear, in wholesale, bulk power markets and retail electricity markets.
From page 50...
... Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Denholm, P., Y
From page 51...
... Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Loutan, C., P
From page 52...
... 2021. "USA to Hold Inquiry into Cold-Weather Operations." World Nuclear News, February 18.


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