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6 Decarbonization
Pages 43-50

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From page 43...
... (2020) propose key interventions to reduce greenhouse gases in this decade: "removing fossil-fuel subsidies and incentivizing decentralized energy generation, building carbon-neutral cities, divesting from assets linked to fossil fuels, revealing the moral implications of fossil fuels, strengthening climate education and engagement, and disclosing greenhouse gas emissions information" (Otto et al., 2020)
From page 44...
... to achieve net-negative emissions. Major challenges to transforming energy systems include mobility that can be electrified through electric and plug-in vehicles, heating and cooling through heat pumps, and especially freight transport, aviation, and shipping.
From page 45...
... Potential consequences from improper certification include wasting time and resources, enabling scams/fraud, harming communities and the environment, and failing to address climate change. Although CDR is emerging as an important climate agenda item, other decarbonization options will play a substantial role in reducing net emissions, including zero-carbon energy sources such as renewables and nuclear energy.
From page 46...
... Second, achieving the gigaton scale within decades requires coordinated research and deployment across carbon removal and reduc tion solutions, and different approaches may involve different capital costs. Policy Solutions Burns suggested policies to facilitate scale-up in six broad areas: • Research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D)
From page 47...
... Critical Challenges in Carbon Sequestration Certification Unaddressed and urgent challenges include defining durable storage from a scientific basis and then devising business practice requirements accordingly; developing measurement techniques to be used in accounting protocols with acceptable levels of uncertainty; identifying what constitutes a suitable reservoir and the consequences of adding carbon to reservoirs; and establishing indepen dent verification. She noted the most important need is to convincingly certify durable storage.
From page 48...
... Examples include the Sleipner T carbon dioxide treatment platform and the carbon capture plant in Iceland (Panko, 2021)
From page 49...
... • Governments, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations could work together to promote decarbonization in agriculture, industry, and energy production, including by building carbon-neutral cities, strength ening climate education and engagement, and encouraging low-carbon lifestyles for mobility, housing, and consumption. 2  See https://frontierclimate.com.


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