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Pages 5-7

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From page 5...
... 5   To identify, document, and categorize the nature of transportation and land-use-policy impacts in this past century, the research team has consulted in the academic and grey literature. This literature review identifies emerging sources that shed light on the historical and present-day social, economic, and health impacts of transportation and land-use planning/policy on Black people in the United States.
From page 6...
... 6 Racial Equity, Black America, and Public Transportation Economics Transportation's origins in slavery as capital interest The dark history of transportation innovation and expansion reveals how many of the systems, processes, and protocols known to be standard practice in transportation planning, today, stem from systems that facilitated violence on both Black people and nature. Cause Racist outcomes and inequities in transportation in the United States stem from the interests and ideologies deriving from slavery.
From page 7...
... Research Approach 7   Toxic industries' immediate harm to Black communities Proximity to highways and main roads cause generational health implications Commuter- and pedestrianfocused pathways Pandemic-era transportation policy and planning changes have disproportionately affected Black communities In general, Black people have been significantly more likely to be exposed to industrial hazards than white people and that exposure has negative effects on health and neighborhood safety. Transportation infrastructures and roadways are built to expedite travel of wealthy suburban people to and through urban centers, at the expense of lowwealth Black communities.

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